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Older men, especially those who are over age 40, often times simply accept living with lower levels of this fat-burning, muscle building chemical. The study analyzed tumor samples from women who had experienced a recurrence of breast cancer with metastatic spread to different parts of the body. It is used only when breast reconstruction is performed immediately after the mastectomy and may not be suitable for tumors that are large or near the skin surface. Ty Bollinger is an author and documentary filmmaker. Rather, the microbe originates in the body i. Someone who can listen and make notes when doctors explain protocol and treatment options.
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Kenyan distance runners, for example, are known to wake up and go for a fasted morning run, and boxers are long known for going for fasted runs in the morning. While this is undoutedly a cultural thing is these sports, could there be something to it? The findings in this area are a little more equivocal. So while the jury is somewhat out, fasted training is a tool that is easy for athletes to implement and so is an option in cases where there is no risk of detrimental impact.
In addition to this, the longer after the last carbohydrate feeding, we typically see a gradual decrease in total carbohydrate oxidation and a linear increase in the appearance of glycerol signifying increased FFA release into the blood from lipolysis.
However, there is a balance which must be met between improving endurance training, maintaining an efficient carbohydrate metabolism pathway, and also maintenance of muscle protein synthesis. Note — All the discussed studies above can be found in this text , and are discussed in much greater detail.
There are also some important questions to debate. Or is it likely a combination of both? What they found was that both the high-fat and high-carbohydrate groups had similar gene expression. Work capacity during exercise is something else which must be taken into consideration. The exercise capacity when in a low-carbohydrate state is diminished, which could potentially compromise high intensity planned training sessions.
If you are not able to complete the planned training sessions, this could potentially hamper the long term training and competition goals. This lends into the periodization model, whereby we can undertake planned low load sessions with lower carbohydrate availability, while ensuring that planned high intensity sessions are undertaken with high carbohydrate availability.
In addition to the reduced work capacity, potential reduction in muscle protein synthesis and increase in PDK4, we must also consider the effects on the immune system. High intensity training can have immunosuppressive effects, which may be exacerbated in periods of low carbohydrate availability, however, further research is required to fully elucidate this. Another thing to note is, that while not all training studies have shown a long term performance benefit, none have shown a decrement in performance.
Hopefully by now I have explained the why and the how of carbohydrate periodization. If you look at the Impey et al. Athletes are loaded with carbohydrate prior to, and during, high intensity sessions. Then in the evening of one of these recovery days, they will begin consuming carbohydrate again in preparation for another intense session coming the following day.
This is where the art of performance nutrition comes into play, as there are currently no set guidelines for what represented high, moderate or low, and this will likely change with regard to the individual and the type of training undertaken. Running is another sport where this could prove advantageous.
As I mentioned earlier, many runners now undertaken a morning run not very intense, light pace and will typically perform intervals on some evenings. Usually there is at least 1 long run per week. Combat sports are another potential benefactor of carbohydrate periodization. Carbohydrate restriction is typically associated with energy restriction, which combat sport athletes will be undertaking during a fight camp in order to make weight.
Due to the schedule of fighters training, there will likely be scope to implement some carbohydrate-restricted sessions, which may also be an easy way to manipulate the energy intake of the athlete.
Even team sports may benefit from such an approach. Different training days for different team sports typically have differing demands. In this sense, you may periodize the carbohydrate on a day-by-day basis as opposed to meal-by-meal with the above examples. Recovery days and technical days may be undertaken with low and moderate carbohydrate intakes, while intense training days, pre-match, match day and the day after a match may all be high carbohydrate days.
Hopefully readers understand a little bit more about carbohydrate periodization and fueling the work required now and may be able to implement its use in practice.
The concept of altering substrate availability on a day-by-day, meal-by-meal basis, to promote endurance training adaptations. He is currently completing his MSc in Sport Nutrition at Liverpool John Moores University, where he is also working as a Performance Nutritionist with various weight-making athletes ranging from combat sports, jockeys, powerlifters and formula e-racing.
Fuel For The Work Required. What is Carbohydrate Periodization? But why the hell does it matter? Underpinning the Concept So, if we are reliant on carbohydrate for high end performance, why all the fuss about training with low carbohydrate? Looking at the biochemical pathway of how we oxidise carbohydrate, we know that: The study was set up as follows: Some of the adaptations associated with positive adaptation to endurance exercise are: How to Use Carbohydrate Periodization: Different Strategies Used How do we go about implementing this?
Each stereoisomer uses different enzymes for conversion, much like each lock has its own unique key. You want to supplement the right stereoisomer, rather than a random pile of ketone types.
Usually in test tube chemistry, you get a mix of stereoisomers often around half one type, and half another type , unlike our body, which only uses and makes one version. Some people like to think of ketone bodies as the fourth energy source for humans in addition to carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
Ketosis, which just means having more ketone bodies than normal, should not be confused with ketoacidosis , which is a potentially dangerous metabolic situation of uncontrolled ketosis. If it senses acid levels rising as happens in ketosis , it responds by buffering with more alkaline molecules such as bicarbonate , changing blood levels of CO2, absorbing hydrogen ions, or telling the kidneys to excrete more dihydrogen phosphate and ammonium ions.
This usually happens in diabetics and alcoholics, since their normal metabolic mechanisms may not work properly. For the average healthy person, dietary ketosis or even brief fasting is generally safe. How do we get into ketosis? Ketogenesis We can make our own ketone bodies naturally, through the process of ketogenesis. Our ancestors kicked off ketogenesis the good old fashioned way: Ketosis is essentially an effect of fasting.
This means that many of the health effects of fasting may be due to ketosis itself, rather than something like energy restriction. This may have to do with our energy-hungry human brains.
About 20 percent of our overall energy intake is devoted to feeding our brains. And it may be this particular evolutionary adaptation — which perhaps began as a way to keep the thinking factory upstairs working when food was scarce — that also enables the brain-benefiting effects of the ketogenic diet. Stored glucose our sugar-based fuel is actually rather heavy. Our body prefers to store most of our excess energy as body fat.
When we eat normally, our brain gets enough energy from glucose that can easily pass the blood-brain barrier. By the way, the relative heaviness of stored glycogen is why many people report fast weight loss on a ketogenic or low-carb diet: Unfortunately, this water and glycogen comes right back once we start eating normally again.
Most people frown on starving children with epilepsy, so a ketogenic diet is the next best thing. Many people like to measure their ketosis with Ketostix, which test for ketones in the urine. Therefore, you may see different readings on the Ketostix, regardless of what is actually happening in your body. Supplement with ketones If ketones are what we want, why not just take them instead of making our own by fasting or cutting out carbohydrates?
This has a lot of cool possibilities. Check back in 10 years. The buzz is that ketone supplements can make you thin and cure whatever ails you. Actually, research on this topic goes back to the s. All of it has been conducted using rats. Here are the findings. A recent study found that ketone supplementation extended survival in mice with metastatic cancer. For now, almost no studies on ketone supplementation have used human clinical trials.
Will ketosis help me? Ketogenesis and ketosis are easy to study. Trust me, we scientists can barely keep the grad students from contaminating the super-purified water by leaving the lid off the jug, never mind organize an evil cabal of ketosis deniers. To be fair, the introduction of anti-epileptic drugs in the late s onward did lead to less interest in dietary ketosis as a treatment for epileptic children. In these specific situations, a ketogenic diet or a structured intermittent fasting program done under close medical supervision for a specific objective, may be a useful as part of a multi-pronged treatment program that probably should include other therapeutic tools such as medication or other well-established health procedures.
Could help in some cases, but should be done with a clear purpose and carefully monitored. Ketones may help, in part, because they decrease oxidative stress, boost antioxidants and scavenge free radicals.
Oxidation is a natural part of cellular metabolism, but too much oxidation, too fast, without the balance of antioxidants, contributes to many metabolic and other diseases. If we can slow and regulate oxidation, it may improve our health and longevity.
Neurodegeneration and brain injuries We know ketosis for epilepsy is a win — can ketosis help other types of brain illnesses and injuries? These metabolic and neourodegenerative diseases show common features, such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation.
The presence of ketones also seems to improve outcomes from traumatic brain injury TBI. However, right now, most of these studies have been done on rats. See above about getting medical supervision from someone other than Dr. We know that caloric restriction CR improves longevity in most organisms studied. We know that intermittent fasting seems to have some of the same benefits, sometimes. For now, any longevity benefits would be mostly speculative.
And your th birthday cake would have to be a block of butter. Could we possibly enable people to tap into their stored body fat more effectively, and require less re-fueling from stuff like sugary energy gels?
You increase fat oxidation, spare glycogen, produce less lactate and use less oxygen at submaximal rates. It seems that combining ketones with carbs, rather than exclusively using one or the other, might offer some benefit.
Then they drank the other half of their drink and biked as far as they could in 30 minutes. Supplementing with a combination of carbohydrates and ketones may improve performance in aerobic competitions.
Some intriguing possibilities, particularly for aerobic performance, but to date there very little evidence to improve overall athletic performance. Low-carb advocates in the late s and early s thought maybe they had stumbled on the key to fighting flab: Insulin is mainly a storage hormone: Its job is basically to help nutrients get into cells.
For one thing, it got some of us unhooked from processed sugary and starchy treats, and thinking more about fiber content and healthy fats. Unfortunately, insulin is not the only player.
Nor does insulin act alone. Energy storage is governed largely by our brain , not a single hormone. The other upside to the low-carb approach was that people often ate more protein and more fat. Which means we eat less. Which means we lose fat. Lower the carb intake, and our body will eventually release some water and glycogen.
You may find it easy to eat less when all you can eat is protein and fat. You may start to have fantasies about a threesome: Not only that, you may be getting some serious scurvy and other nutrient deficiencies. As part of the carb-insulin hypothesis, people thought that maybe metabolism would also increase during ketosis.
With this dietary change, insulin went down while fatty acids and ketone bodies went up. Basal metabolism energy expenditure went up by about kcal per day. The authors concluded that while there was a small increase in metabolism initially, that disappeared over the four weeks while insulin levels were still low.
Is protein actually the key factor? The authors of the study think that differences found in other studies comparing high and low-carb diets are because of differences in protein intake rather than carbohydrate intake in those studies. Protein promotes satiety and takes the most energy to digest and absorb, so differences in weight loss may be net calories absorbed , rather than decreases in insulin or increases in metabolism.
Gaining lean mass As you may have read above, insulin is mainly a storage hormone. As in building things. As in getting swole. For the most part, we need insulin — along with other hormones, such as growth hormone and testosterone — to create an anabolic, muscle-building environment.
Trying to build muscle while in ketosis is like stepping on the gas and the brake at the same time. However, as with athletic performance, we may discover that there is some benefit to supplementary ketones while building muscle. Build muscle with a more appropriately anabolic diet that includes carbohydrates particularly around training , and supplement with ketones if you want to experiment.
After reading this article, you might feel like nutrition is more complex than you thought. Our next group kicks off shortly. Plus the ability to turn that knowledge into a thriving coaching practice. Click here to view the information sources referenced in this article. Swets and Zeitlinger, Old Remedies for Epilepsy: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal.
The use of diet in the treatment of epilepsy. Cox PJ, Clarke K. Therapeutic ketosis with ketone ester delays central nervous system oxygen toxicity seizures in rats. Ketogenic diet decreases oxidative stress and improves mitochondrial respiratory complex activity.
Energy expenditure and body composition changes after an isocaloric ketogenic diet in overweight and obese men. Am J Clin Nutr. Linking mitochondrial dysfunction, metabolic syndrome and stress signaling in neurodegeneration. Effects of exogenous ketone supplementation on blood ketone, glucose, triglyceride, and lipoprotein levels in Sprague-Dawley rats. Stimulatory influence of D - 3-hydroxybutyrate feeding on sympathetic nervous system activity in the rat.