Sponges have no cells connected to each other by synaptic junctions , that is, no neurons, and therefore no nervous system. If you get hit on the head while playing sports and think there's a chance you have a concussion, stop playing right away and let a coach or parent know what's going on. Memory is another complex function of the brain. Genitourinary system Kidney Ureter Bladder Urethra. Neural signals propagate along an axon in the form of electrochemical waves called action potentials , which emit cell-to-cell signals at points of contact called "synapses". It is also possible for nerves to lose function temporarily, resulting in numbness as stiffness—common causes include mechanical pressure, a drop in temperature, or chemical interactions with local anesthetic drugs such as lidocaine. Nevertheless, it happens that the two most widely used neurotransmitters, glutamate and gamma-Aminobutyric acid GABA , each have largely consistent effects.
Omega-3 Fish Oil and Pregnancy: Benefits & Dosage
Aquaculture denotes harvesting of plants and animals in variety of water sources ranging from small lakes, tanks Chemistry is a branch of physical sciences as it studies about the structure, composition and properties of matter. Clinical Investigations form part of the healthcare sciences that is often referred also as Clinical research. Engineering is a branch of science and technology which deals with the design, building, and use of engines, machines, Genetics is a biological science that involves the study of genes or heredity in living beings, including humans.
Overlapped applications of different scientific streams are found Healthcare is part of the vast medical field that involves the study of detention, cure and prevention of illness Immunology is a bio-medical science that provides comprehensive information on immune system of the living organism. Material Science is an interdisciplinary science that combines the physical as well as chemical aspects of matter and Mathematics can be a pure science that deals with numbers, quantities, structures and space or Medical Science involves the study of both theory and practice of medicines, with a special emphasis on diagnosis Neurology is a branch of medical science that provides a comprehensive overview of the way complex nervous system Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, therapy, cure and rehabilitation of various forms Pharmaceutical science is an interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of designing, manufacturing If the patient has survived 12 hours or more after an ischemic event, you'll usually see red neurons, which the neuropathologist may call "ischemic cell change".
Of course, they are not specific for ischemia, but are simply acute necrosis. In physical trauma, the membranes are physically disrupted and red neurons form even faster. Red neurons WebPath Photo. Neurofibrillary tangles WebPath Photo. They are typical of idiopathic Parkinson's disease substantia nigra and Lewy-body dementia large numbers in the cortex. No one knows what this means. Lewy body Tom Demark's Site.
They're made of tau protein. On EM, they appear filamentous. A true Pick body lights up for phosphorylated tau. Other inclusions in frontotemporal dementia proved to be tau-negative, ubiquitin-positive, a discovery that led to the separation of the frontotemporal lobe dementias: They often stain both as neurons and glia, and no one's sure which they are update Brain It's typical of the prion diseases.
They are typical of Alzheimer's disease but occasionally pop up in a variety of cells in a variety of illnesses. Look in the hippocampus. It is typical of Alzheimer's disease. Rabies Yutaka Tsutsumi MD. Rabies Negri body in a neuron KU Collection. If an axon is severed or otherwise injured, the perikaryon neuronal cell body swells, rounds up and becomes pale-staining. The Nissl substance disappears except just below the cell membrane, and the nucleus moves to the edge of the cell.
The neuron is recovering! You seen them in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis SSPE and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. They are seen in liver failure and other states with high blood ammonia Reye's, urea cycle problems.
Look in the gray matter, especially the thalamus. Brain that has herniated WebPath Photo. Uncal herniation WebPath Photo. Duret hemorrhages WebPath Photo. Duret hemorrhage WebPath Photo. Edema from micrometastases WebPath Photo.
Cerebral edema Wide gyri, obliterated sulci WebPath Photo. But Bruce Lee's death sounds like an example of this. He had been sparring during the day, felt sick and lay down, and was found dead of massive, unexplained cerebral edema. Hydrocephalus From Chile In Spanish. Pathology of stroke Good photos Wash U. Pathology of Stroke Some great photos From Wash.
Brain infarct Acute WebPath Photo. Fresh infarct WebPath Photo. Intermediate age infarct WebPath Photo. Intermediate age infarct Lots of macrophages eating lipid WebPath Photo. Carotid thrombus WebPath Photo. Organized thrombus WebPath Photo. Hemorrhagic infarct WebPath Photo. Infarct with petechiae WebPath Photo. This disproves his friend Maxim Gorky's maxim that a bad person needs a good brain. Hypertensive basal ganglia hemorrhage WebPath Photo.
Prior to the subarachnoid hemorrhage that put him in persistent vegetative state, he very explicitly and unequivocally stated that he did not want to live under such conditions, and thought nobody else should be forced to do so, either. His family had to drag the attending physician and hospital -- and the "militants" -- all the way to the Massachusetts Supreme Court to win him and us the right to die under these circmstances.
Some details of this case are especially grim; you may enjoy reading about it. Berry aneurysm WebPath Photo. Subarachnoid bleed from berry aneurysm WebPath Photo. Berry aneurysm Incidental finding KU Collection. AV malformation WebPath Photo. Germinal plate, normal WebPath Photo. Germinal plate hemorrhage WebPath Photo. He was the first person to relate psychotherapy and existentialism. He even got a tribute in the "Journal of Existentialism" when he died in You may find Viktor Frankl's works more accessable.
It sounds corny today, but the idea that mental therapy should focus on the here-and-now, doing your own thinking including "finding meaning" and "finding an answer for death" , accepting life even when it is not perfect, changing fixed ways of thinking, and taking responsibility for your outcomes was radical in its day notably the 's.
We can thank the existentialists or maybe just common sense. Click here for an English translation of the table of contents of Binswanger's book, and decide for yourself why the full work remains untranslated into English. Whether either is worth trying to understand is for you to decide. Whatever you think of existentialism the dominant secular philosophy when your lecturer was growing up , I hope you will not be shy about talking with people about their personal searches for meaning, authenticity, commitment, being something real, and taking as much responsibility as they can for their own lives.
The "average" industrial worker has one chance in ten-thousand of suffering brain damage each year, but the risk varies tremendously from job to job. Acute subdural Bryan Lee. Acute subdural hematoma WebPath Photo. Chronic subdural hematoma WebPath Photo. Chronic subdural hematomas WebPath Photo. Contracoup injury WebPath Photo. Contracoup injury, old WebPath Photo. Shaken baby Axonal spheroids WebPath Photo. Motor vehicle fatality WebPath Photo. It begins with mild disturbances of mood and coordination.
Eventually, immature and aggressive behavior, impaired memory, hyperreflexia, and poor coordination are likely to develop. Where dementia has occurred, there are neurofibrillary tangles histochemically very much like those of Alzheimer's Am. Traditionally, it's been taught that there are no senile plaques -- reaffirmed Arch.
This is being re-evaluated -- it's hard to tell whether an aging boxer has chronic traumatic encephalopathy or just happens to have early Alzheimer's. One classic study found the neocortical neurofibrillary tangles in boxers to be in the superficial layers, while in Alzheimer's they were as abundant in the deep layers Acta.
Cavum septum pellucidum is fairly distinctive for boxers. Boxing injuries JAMA Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in other sports -- infamously NFL football -- is under intensive studies. Some workers report that neurofibrillary tangles don't appear in the cortex at all but are abundant in the caudate, putamen, thalamus, substantia nigra and cerebellum. Fat embolus Petechiae throughout white matter KU Collection. Fat embolus WebPath Photo. Purulent meningitis WebPath Photo.
Meningococcal meningitis Yutaka Tsutsumi MD. Meningococci Gram stain WebPath Photo. Bacterial meningitis Thick purulent exudate KU Collection. Klebsiella meningitis Yutaka Tsutsumi MD. Listeria meningitis Yutaka Tsutsumi MD. Acute Meningitis Text and photomicrographs. Human Pathology Digital Image Gallery. Purulent meningitis Great labels Romanian Pathology Atlas. Tuberculous meningitis Yutaka Tsutsumi MD.
Cryptococal meningitis Yutaka Tsutsumi MD. Cryptococcal Meningitis Pittsburgh Illustrated Case. Peptostreptococcal brain abscess Yutaka Tsutsumi MD. Brain abscesses Pittsburgh Pathology Cases. Brain abscess WebPath Photo. Brain abscess, organizing rim WebPath Photo. MRI Click on the brain abscess! Herpes encephalitis WebPath Photo. Herpes simplex encephalitis Yutaka Tsutsumi MD.
Immunization has made the disease much less common in the developed countries, and its occurrence in recent memory among anti-immunization cultists four among the Amish MMWR Christina's World -- After Polio?
Poliomyelitis Yutaka Tsutsumi MD. In your writer's opinion, polio cannot possibly be eradicated in the foreseeable future. Most people who are sick with, and spreading, the polio virus do not appear especially sick; in fact, if you've been immunized and meet the polio virus, you often still spread it without any symptoms J.
The virus is spread by water, and poor sanitation makes even one unfortunate person able to infect many, many others. Worldwide, TB , AIDS, and malaria are much greater health problems, and people dislike being immunized against a disease they have never seen affect anyone.
For more, see Lancet Ghana stopped mass immunizations in thinking polio had gone away -- epidemics struck in and and ended only with resumption of immunization J.
Nigerian anti-Western politicians sponsor an anti-immunization disinformation campaign resulting in hundreds of sick children: In Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria, pseudo-Islamic militants kill physicians and their helpers for bringing polio vaccines: China neglects immunization among the poor in its Western area this is obvious despite the special pleading and polio enters from Pakistan: Polio recurs in Syria: Prions Pittsburgh Pathology Cases.
Prion disease WebPath Photo. Prion disease Lots of amyloid "kuru plaques" WebPath Photo These infectious disorders are caused by agents that, to scientists before the 's, seemed to break the rules of basic biology. It has been clear since the 's that they lack nucleic acid Nature Nobel Prize , Stanley Prusiner for figuring out how they work.
The most efficient means of transmission is direct inoculation of infectious nervous system material. Unfortunately, it takes autoclaving, hypochlorite or phenol to render the material non-infectious.
By definition, prions are protein-containing infectious particles that keep their infectivity after being subjected to procedures that specifically destroy nucleic acids. A portion of the prion protein is known to be a neurotoxin Nature By the late 's, the mystery was solved. No other components have been identified to date. The infectious particles in scrapie are designated PrP Sc for scrapie; protease-resistant and the healthy cellular form itself is PrP C for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; protease-sensitive.
The exact sequences change when the infections are passed from one species to another, confirming that the new particles are coded by the host genome. A variety of human and animal syndromes are all really variations on the same theme. The EEG is distinctive and establishes the diagnosis.
The disease is relentless and untreatable, and death results within a year or so. Usually sporadic, the disease has also followed exposure to corneal transplants, surgical instruments Lancet 1: Pathologists treat this agent with great respect. Early diagnosis of spongiform encephalopathy can occasionally be made in humans and animals by examining the tonsils.
In humans with bovine spongiform encephalopathy it is supposedly always present; otherwise the yield is low. Unfortunately, this doesn't work as a way of screening for other prion diseases.
Genes for PrP seem to correlate with susceptibility: Thanks to an altered method of preparing the feed, prions were no longer inactivated. That there was an epidemic was obvious by Nature About , cattle died of the disease. The British had also been using very, very poor slaughterhouse practices, with brain mixing with the meat. The "mad cow" flap resurfaced in , with the claim Lancet April 6, , most of the issue that a new strain of Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, with early onset, more psychiatric changes, less myoclonus, and lots of amyloid, had perhaps resulted from the abundance of prions in beef.
Later that year, Nature The patients live longer, and the abnormal behavior is more prominent than the dementia. First apparent transmission of vCJD by blood transfusion: Americans are eating them.
Is anybody getting sick? Maybe, but probably not Arch. Nobody even talks about this. Compare this indifference to the media and political excitement whenever anyone suspects a single American cow might have "mad cow" disease. KURU affected cannibals in New Guinea, and victims appeared to be those persons who rubbed raw brains of previous victims over their own bodies. Motor problems and dementia led to death within months to years.
It is Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, transmitted in an exotic ethnic group. You will enjoy reading Am. These are transmitted as dominant genes and produce proteins that have a much greater tendency to misfold.
Sooner or later, the cascade starts by itself. The array of PrP mutations: This exonerated the ethnic custom of eating raw sheep brains and eyeballs. Transgenic mice with Gerstmann-Sträussler: Transgenic mice with no PrP seem to be okay mice Nature Read all about it: In spongiform change, the neuropil appears vacuolated "spongiform changes" ; the vacuoles are in the cell processes and perikaryons. At autopsy of victims of the spongiform encephalopathies, the neurons are mostly gone, but there is a corresponding tremendous astrocytosis, so brains may not appear atrophic.
Kuru plaque formers have leucine at codon of PrP. Suggested lab tests on CSF have proved unreliable at best Arch. Everybody would like a way to establish the diagnosis without having to resort to brain biopsy. Prions are likely to be present in other tissues NEJM Creutzfeldt managed to save all of his neuropsych patients, and some people in concentration camps, from the Nazis.
Naegleria meningoencephalitis Yutaka Tsutsumi MD. Acanthamoeba of the brain Great photos Pittsburgh Pathology Cases. Acanthameba meningoencephalitis Yutaka Tsutsumi MD.