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Views Read Edit View history. Nature Care College Library is conveniently located in the college with approximately 10, items related to the college curriculum. Association for Computing Machinery Digital Library. A Department spokesman indicated the emphasis would be on increasing the consumption of perishables. As mentioned before, levels of childhood stunting and wasting persist across regions and countries; yet, simultaneously, there has been an increase in overweight and obesity, often in the same countries and communities with relatively high levels of child stunting.
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Produced by the American Economic Association. Educational Resource Information Center. Trafficking was much less likely to occur among publicly owned than privately owned stores and was much less likely among stores in areas with less poverty rather than more. The total annual value of trafficked benefits increased at about the same rate as overall program growth. The current estimate of total SNAP dollars trafficked is higher than observed in the previous — period.
This increase is consistent, however, with the almost 37 percent growths in average annual SNAP benefits from the — study periods to the most recent one. The methodology used to generate these estimates has known limitations. However, given variable data and resources, it is the most practical approach available to FNS. Further improvements to SNAP trafficking estimates would require new resources to assess the prevalence of trafficking among a random sample of stores.
For larger stores supermarkets and large groceries , only 0. In terms of redemptions, about 17 percent of small groceries redemptions and 14 percent of convenience store redemptions were estimated to have been trafficked.
This compares with a rate of 0. These changes will include stiffer penalties for retailers who are caught participating in illegal or fraudulent activities. SNAP benefit fraud, generally in the form of store employees buying EBT cards from recipients is widespread in urban areas, with one in seven corner stores engaging in such behavior, according to a recent government estimate. There are in excess of , stores, and we have agents spread across the country.
According to the Government Accountability Office , at a count, there was a payment error rate of 4. In Maine, incidents of recycling fraud have occurred in the past where individuals once committed fraud by using their EBT cards to buy canned or bottled beverages requiring a deposit to be paid at the point of purchase for each beverage container , dump the contents out so the empty beverage container could be returned for deposit redemption, and thereby, allowed these individuals to eventually purchase non-EBT authorized products with cash from the beverage container deposits.
The State of Utah developed a system called "eFind" to monitor, evaluate and cross-examine qualifying and reporting data of recipients assets. Utah's eFind system is a "back end", web-based system that gathers, filters, and organizes information from various federal, state, and local databases. This system was developed with federal funds and it is available to other states free of charge.
HIP is designed to take place from August to April with the actual operation phase of the pilot program scheduled to last 15 months, from November to January Periodically, proposals have been raised to restrict SNAP benefits from being used to purchase various categories or types of food which have been criticized as "junk food" or "luxury items".
However, Congress and the Department of Agriculture have repeatedly rejected such proposals on both administrative burden and personal freedom grounds. The Food and Nutrition Service noted in that no federal standards exist to determine which foods should be considered "healthy" or not, that "vegetables, fruits, grain products, meat and meat alternatives account for nearly three-quarters of the money value of food used by food stamp households" and that "food stamp recipients are no more likely to consume soft drinks than are higher-income individuals, and are less likely to consume sweets and salty snacks.
They also noted that many urban food stores do a poor job of stocking healthy foods and instead favor high-profit processed items. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. An effort to manage agricultural surpluses , the first food stamps came off the presses April 20, Orange stamps were good for any grocery item the purchaser chose, except drugs, liquor and items consumed on the premises. Blue stamps bought only surplus foods—dairy products, eggs, citrus fruits, prunes and fresh vegetables.
Department of Agriculture official website , March 3, last revised. Accessed March 4, April 1, to July 1, Report. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 22 January Retrieved 15 December United States department of Agriculture. Retrieved 16 August Retrieved 5 January Dole Institute of Politics.
Retrieved 30 October Brookings Institution, , p. United States Department of Agriculture. To provide for the continuation of agricultural and other programs of the Department of Agriculture through fiscal year , and for other purposes.
Library of Congress , undated. Accessed May 20, Retrieved 16 December Retrieved 5 May An Analysis of the Housing and Vacancy Survey". Archived from the original on 5 January Retrieved April 20, Retrieved 2 December Economists consider SNAP one of the most effective forms of economic stimulus.
Similarly, CBO rated an increase in SNAP benefits as one of the two most cost-effective of all spending and tax options it examined for boosting growth and jobs in a weak economy.
Center for Budget and Policy Priorititys. Retrieved 12 August Fiscal Year " PDF. Archived from the original PDF on Archived from the original on 7 January Retrieved 18 September Food Policy in the US. Untangling the Self-Selection Effect". Economic Research Report No. Archived from the original on Assessing Federal Food Aid. AEI Press, p. Archived from the original PDF on 22 June Retrieved 14 December Obama Ag Secretary Vilsack: Food Stamps Are A "Stimulus. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
Retailers Brace for Reduction in Food Stamps". More Americans selling their food stamps for cash". Detroit-area stores swipe millions from aid program". Department of Agriculture website". Agencies under the United States Department of Agriculture. Forest Service Office of Environmental Markets. Food Safety and Inspection Service. Contemporary social welfare programs in the United States. The share of undernourished people in the world population — the prevalence of undernourishment, or PoU — may have reached Persistent instability in conflict-ridden regions, adverse climate events in many regions of the world and economic slowdowns that have affected more peaceful regions and worsened the food security, all help to explain this deteriorating situation.
The situation is worsening in South America and most regions of Africa Table 1. The situation is also deteriorating in South America, where the PoU has increased from 4. The projected PoU for Asia in is Without increased efforts, the world will fall far short of achieving the SDG target of eradicating hunger by Overall, there has been some progress regarding stunting and exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life.
The number of stunted children has decreased from Yet, the number is still unacceptably high and the road to reaching the target is still long. Rates of exclusive breastfeeding in Africa and Asia are 1. Conversely, anaemia among women of reproductive age is not improving. The prevalence of anaemia among women of reproductive age has risen incrementally from Shamefully, one in three women of reproductive age globally is still affected by anaemia, with significant health and development consequences for both women and their children.
Joint child malnutrition estimates - Levels and trends edition [online]. Infant and Young Child Feeding: Exclusive breastfeeding, Predominant breastfeeding. Monitoring the Situation of Children and Women [online]. Global Health Observatory indicator views. World Health Organization [online]. Global Health Observatory data repository. An analysis from indicated that deaths or Since , the global proportion of overweight children remains relatively stagnant, with 5.
Adult obesity, on the other hand, is worsening. Adult obesity rates continue to rise each year, from This means that in more than one in eight adults, or more than million, in the world is obese. The prevalence of obesity among adults in the world has been increasing steadily between and — and at an accelerated pace over the past decade. Adult obesity is highest in Northern America and the rate of increase in adult obesity is also the highest there.
While Africa and Asia continue to have the lowest rates of obesity, an increasing trend can also be observed. As mentioned before, levels of childhood stunting and wasting persist across regions and countries; yet, simultaneously, there has been an increase in overweight and obesity, often in the same countries and communities with relatively high levels of child stunting.
Iron deficiency anaemia in women of reproductive age is one form of micronutrient deficiency. A large proportion of the world population is also affected by micronutrient vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Many countries have a high prevalence of more than one form of malnutrition. This multiple burden of malnutrition is more prevalent in low-, lower-middle and middle-income countries and concentrated among the poor. Obesity in high-income countries is similarly concentrated among the poor.
The coexistence of multiple forms of malnutrition can occur not only within countries and communities, but also within households — and can even affect the same person over their lifetime. Poor access to food and particularly healthy food contributes to undernutrition as well as overweight and obesity. It increases the risk of low birthweight, childhood stunting and anaemia in women of reproductive age, and it is linked to overweight in school-age girls and obesity among women, particularly in upper-middle- and high-income countries.
There are several pathways from inadequate food access to multiple forms of malnutrition. Figure 14 illustrates two pathways: Food insecurity unreliable access to food can contribute to child wasting, stunting and micronutrient deficiencies by negatively affecting the adequacy of food consumption. A diet characterized by insufficient intake of calories, protein, vitamins and minerals will impede foetal, infant and child growth and development.
Such diets contribute to maternal undernutrition and consequently to higher risk of low birthweight, which in turn are both risk factors for child stunting. The stress of living with food insecurity can also have a negative effect on the nutrition of infants by compromising breastfeeding. Although it may appear to be a paradox, food insecurity can also contribute to overweight and obesity.
Nutritious, fresh foods often tend to be expensive. Thus, when household resources for food become scarce, people choose less expensive foods that are often high in calories and low in nutrients. This is particularly true in urban settings and upper-middle and high-income countries, although the negative effect of food insecurity on diet quality has been documented in low-, middle- and high-income countries alike. There are also psychosocial factors that link food insecurity to obesity.
The experience of not having certain or adequate access to food often causes feelings of anxiety, stress and depression, which in turn can lead to behaviours that increase the risk of overweight and obesity. Such foods have been found to have physiological effects that reduce stress in the short term.
Disordered eating patterns and food deprivation are another component linking food insecurity to malnutrition. Maternal undernutrition — as well as overweight— caused by lack of stable access to adequate diets can cause metabolic, physiological and neuroendocrine changes in children, fueling intergenerational cycle of malnutrition.
The coexistence of multiple forms of malnutrition means that the two pathways described above do not work in isolation but rather impact each other. In this way, the undernutrition linked with food security might at the same time be linked with overweight and obesity.
As described, food insecurity is associated with low birthweight in infants. Low birthweight is a risk factor for child stunting, which in turn is associated with overweight and obesity later in life. There is a need to implement and scale up interventions aimed at guaranteeing access to nutritious foods and breaking the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition.