Carpal tunnel syndrome
The study was stopped and in every case the symptom completely disappeared. Please see the Potassium page for more information about potassium. Tips on Giving Subcutaneous Fluids. Nottingham Press, UK, NIH Senior Health website. Even if modern food practices did not affect nutrition which they do , all minerals that humans need for optimal health do not exist uniformly in soils.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Zinc deficiency plant disorder. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. Handbook of Clinical Nutrition and Aging. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. DGLA ratio; a sensitive physiological marker of zinc status in vivo Gallus gallus ". Textbook of gastroenterology 5th ed. Oral and maxillofacial medicine: World Journal of Gastroenterology. Medical problems in dentistry 6th ed. The Journal of Laryngology and Otology.
The British Journal of Nutrition. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho in Japanese. Handbook of nutrition, diet and the eye. The Role of Zinc in Child Health. Archived 13 May at the Wayback Machine. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Retrieved 18 August Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. Journal of Affective Disorders. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. Shalahuddin; Hasnat, Abul July Biological Trace Element Research.
Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine 22nd ed. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. A public health problem? American Journal of Diseases of Children. The Journal of Pediatrics. The Journal of Nutrition. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. Toxicology and Industrial Health. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. C, Comparative Pharmacology and Toxicology. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, zinc.
The National Academies Press; Annual Review of Nutrition. Int J Biol Markers. Retrieved 21 February The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Retrieved 30 August Annales des Sciences Naturelles. The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine.
Archived from the original on 19 December Retrieved 23 April Archived from the original on 19 February Retrieved 15 December Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Agronomic or genetic biofortification? The role of polyunsaturated fatty acids in term and preterm infants and breastfeeding mothers. Pediatr Clin North Am 48 1: Similar effects on infants of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids supplementation to pregnant and lactating women.
Prevention of preeclampsia by linoleic acid and calcium supplementation: Obstet Gynecol 91 4: Effects of supplementation with omega 3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on retinal and cortical development in premature infants. Am J Clin Nutr 57 5 Suppl: Vitamin D requirement during pregnancy and lactation.
J Bone Miner Res 22 Suppl 2: Nutritional vitamin D status during pregnancy: Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in pregnant women: Br J Nutr 6: Essential fatty acids in mothers and their neonates.
Low serum vitamin B12 is associated with recurrent pregnancy loss in Syrian women. Clin Chem Lab Med 46 9: Hyppönen E, Boucher BJ. Avoidance of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy in the United Kingdom: Br J Nutr 3: The effect of maternal and cord-blood vitamin C, vitamin E and lipid peroxide levels on newborn birth weight.
Effects of maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake on visual function and neurodevelopment in breastfed term infants. Am J Clin Nutr 82 1: Maternal dietary intake of vitamin A and risk of orofacial clefts: Am J Epidemiol Kaitlin M March et al. First published July 8, , doi: Intake of vitamin C and E in pregnancy and risk of pre-eclampsia: High frequency of maternal vitamin B12 deficiency as an important cause of infantile vitamin B12 deficiency in Sanliurfa province of Turkey. Eur J Nutr 45 5: Vitamin D in pregnancy and lactation: Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: Vitamin D deficiency in a healthy group of mothers and newborn infants.
Clin Pediatr 46 1: Trial of calcium to prevent preeclampsia. Impact of maternal probiotic-supplemented dietary counselling on pregnancy outcome and prenatal and postnatal growth: Low maternal vitamin D status and fetal bone development: J Bone Miner Res 25 1: Are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids essential nutrients in infancy?.
Perinatal outcomes, including mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and child mortality and their association with maternal vitamin D status in Tanzania. J Infect Dis 7: Association between vitamin D deficiency and primary cesarean section.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94 3: Prenatal maternal diet affects asthma risk in offspring. Fetal intraventricular bleeding possibly due to maternal vitamin K deficiency. Fetal Diagn Ther 24 4: Maternal vitamin B12 status and risk of neural tube defects in a population with high neural tube defect prevalence and no folic acid fortification. Prevention of neural tube defects: Implications of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy and lactation.
Am J Obstet Gynecol 5: Low maternal vitamin B12 status is associated with intrauterine growth retardation in urban South Indians. Eur J Clin Nutr 60 6: Vitamin D insufficiency common in newborns, children and pregnant women living in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Matern Child Nutr 5 2: Hayes and Nigel A. Maternal iron status in early pregnancy and birth outcomes: Prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status during pregnancy.
Ir Med J 8: Influence of calcium intake on gestational hypertension. Ann Nutr Metab Maternal vitamin D in pregnancy may influence not only offspring bone mass but other aspects of musculoskeletal health and adiposity. Med Hypotheses 71 2: Prenatal vitamin supplementation and pediatric brain tumors: Childs Nerv Syst 14 Vitamins C and E to prevent complications of pregnancy-associated hypertension. Clin Exp Allergy 40 5: Relationship between pregnancy outcomes and maternal vitamin D and calcium intake: Gynecol Endocrinol 22 El-Sayed and Azza A.
The effect of zinc supplementation on pregnancy outcomes: Calcium supplementation in mild preeclampsia remote from term: Obstet Gynecol 85 6: Am J Epidemiol 2: Risks of orofacial clefts in children born to women using multivitamins containing folic acid periconceptionally. DNA methylation, insulin resistance, and blood pressure in offspring determined by maternal periconceptional B vitamin and methionine status.
Proc Natl Acad Sci Slovis TL, Chapman S. Pediatr Radiol 38 Amer Coll Obstet Gynecol 3: Childhood cancer and vitamins: Pediatr Blood Cancer 50 2 Suppl: Use of cod liver oil during the first year of life is associated with lower risk of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes: Association between maternal use of folic acid supplements and risk of autism spectrum disorders in children.
Vitamin B and neural tube defects: Am J Clin Nutr 89 2: Essential fatty acids in visual and brain development. Multivitamin use and the risk of preterm birth.
Calcium metabolism, calcium supplementation and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Genetic and lifestyle factors related to the periconception vitamin B12 status and congenital heart defects: Mol Genet Metab 94 1: Effects of maternal vitamin supplements on malaria in children born to HIV-infected women.
Am J Trop Med Hyg 76 6: High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in a cohort of breastfeeding mothers and their infants: Breastfeed Med 1 2: Periconceptional folic acid exposure and risk of occurrent neural tube defects. Effect of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant formula on problem solving at 10 months of age.
Early life factors in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Curr Osteoporos Rep 7 4: Nutritional control of fetal growth. Nutr Rev 64 5 Pt 2: Vitamin B12 and folate concentrations during pregnancy and insulin resistance in the offspring: Young GL, Jewell D. Interventions for leg cramps in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1: Vitamin D deficiency and supplementation during pregnancy. Clin Endocrinol Oxf 70 5: Zatollah Asemi et al. Magnesium supplementation affects metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes: First published May 27, , doi: Clinical manifestations of infants with nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency due to maternal dietary deficiency.
Maternal plasma hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus. PLoS One 3 Synergistic inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 expression by vitamin E and aspirin.
Free Rad Bio Med 29 Adams JS, Hewison M. Unexpected actions of vitamin D: Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 4 2: Vitamin D in defense of the human immune response. Vitamin D-directed rheostatic regulation of monocyte antibacterial responses. J Immunol 7: Adorini L, Penna G. Control of autoimmune diseases by the vitamin D endocrine system. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol 4 8: Role of zinc administration in prevention of childhood diarrhea and respiratory illnesses: Vitamin D and autoimmunity: Ann Rheum Dis 66 9: Effect of multivitamin and multimineral supplements on morbidity from infections in older people MAVIS trial: Vitamin D supplementation to prevent infections: Age Ageing 36 5: Vitamin D signaling in immune-mediated disorders: Evolving insights and therapeutic opportunities.
Mol Aspects Med 29 6: Vitamin D3 and the immune system: Nutr Res Rev 20 1: Antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, analgesics, and nutritional supplements for alimentary tract mucositis. Support Care Cancer 14 6: Effect of a multivitamin and mineral supplement on infection and quality of life. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Selenium and vitamin E status: J Nutr 5: Immune-enhancing role of vitamin C and zinc and effect on clinical conditions. Proc Nutr Soc Vitamin D and the immune system: Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 17 4: Nutritional aspects of immunosuppression in athletes. Sports Med 28 3: Boardley D, Fahlman M. Micronutrient supplementation does not attenuate seasonal decline of immune system indexes in well-nourished elderly women: J Am Diet Assoc 3: Daily micronutrient supplements enhance delayed-hypersensitivity skin test responses in older people.
Am J Clin Nutr 60 3: Effects of one year of supplementation with zinc and other micronutrients on cellular immunity in the elderly. J Am Coll Nutr 9 3: Zinc supplementation has no effect on circulating levels of peripheral blood leucocytes and lymphocyte subsets in healthy adult men. Br J Nutr 89 5: Vitamin D and its role in immunology: Prog Biophys Mol Biol 92 1: The paradoxical effects of vitamin D on type 1 mediated immunity. The modulatory role of melatonin on immune responsiveness.
Curr Opin Investig Drugs 7 5: Effect of vitamin and trace-element supplementation on immune responses and infection in elderly subjects. Influence of multinutrient supplement on immune responses and infection-related illness in year old individuals. Does multivitamin supplementation prevent infections in healthy elderly subjects?
Int J Vitam Nutr Res 63 1: Association between intakes of magnesium, potassium, and calcium and risk of stroke: Am J Clin Nutr June vol.
Effect of nutritional supplements on wound healing in home-nursed elderly: Cross-talk between probiotic bacteria and the host immune system. J Nutr 3 Suppl 2: Cutolo M, Otsa K. Fish oil supplementation modulates immune function in healthy infants. J Nutr 4: Vitamin E ingestion improves several immune functions in elderly men and women. Free Radic Res 42 3: The immune system in the oxidative stress conditions of aging and hypertension: Antioxid Redox Signal 7 Micronutrients and vertical transmission of HIV Role of multivitamins and mineral supplements in preventing infections in elderly people: TLR-induced local metabolism of vitamin D3 plays an important role in the diversification of adaptive immune responses.
Trial of zinc supplements in relation to pregnancy outcomes, hematologic indicators, and T cell counts among HIVinfected women in Tanzania. Am J Clin Nutr 81 1: Ferguson LR, Philpott M. Cancer prevention by dietary bioactive components that target the immune response.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets 7 5: Dietary vitamin E, IgE concentrations, and atopy. Fatty acids as modulators of the immune response. Froicu M, Cantorna MT. Vitamin D and the vitamin D receptor are critical for control of the innate immune response to colonic injury. Effect of beta-carotene supplementation on photosuppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity in normal young men.
Am J Clin Nutr 56 4: Vitamin and mineral supplements for preventing infections in older people. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of nutritional supplementation during acute illness.
Am J Med 8: Impact of trace elements and vitamin supplementation on immunity and infections in institutionalized elderly patients: Effect of micronutrient supplementation on infection in institutionalized elderly subjects: Ann Nutr Metab 41 2: Can nutrition limit exercise-induced immunodepression?.
Nutr Rev 64 3: Gleeson M, Bishop NC. Int J Sports Med 21 Suppl 1: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids influence the immune system of infants. Effect of daily vitamin E and multivitamin-mineral supplementation on acute respiratory tract infections in elderly persons: Correlation between zinc status and immune function in the elderly.
Immune response to influenza vaccine in healthy adults and the elderly: Effect of UV exposure and beta-carotene supplementation on delayed-type hypersensitivity response in healthy older men. J Am Coll Nutr 17 6: Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 39 2: Micronutrient supplementation and immune function in the elderly. Clin Infect Dis 28 4: Nutritional strategies to boost immunity and prevent infection in elderly individuals. Clin Infect Dis The influence of selenium on immune responses. Mol Nutr Food Res 52 Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections in children who attend day care centres: Clin Nutr 29 3: Vitamin D status modulates the immune response to Epstein Barr virus: Synergistic effect of risk factors in multiple sclerosis.
Med Hypotheses 70 1: The effect of b-carotene supplementation on the immune function of blood monocytes from healthy male nonsmokers. J Lab Clin Med Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load with selenium supplementation: Arch Intern Med 2: Micronutrient supplementation increases CD4 count in HIV-infected individuals on highly active antiretroviral therapy: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 42 5: Vitamin D, the immune system and asthma.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol 5 6: Nutrition and immunity in the elderly: Am J Clin Nutr 66 2: Use of diet, nutritional supplements and exercise in HIV-infected patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapies: Antivir Ther 13 2: A randomized controlled trial of vitamin D3 supplementation for the prevention of symptomatic upper respiratory tract infections. Epidemiol Infect The effect of vitamin A supplementation on the intestinal immune response in Mexican children is modified by pathogen infections and diarrhea.
Selected vitamins and trace elements support immune function by strengthening epithelial barriers and cellular and humoral immune responses. BJN 98 Suppl 1: J Am Coll Nutr 19 5: Vitamin intake is not associated with community-acquired pneumonia in U.
Vitamin E supplementation enhances cell-mediated immunity in healthy elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 52 3: Vitamin E supplementation and in vivo immune response in healthy elderly subjects: Vitamin effects on the immune system: Nat Rev Immunol 8 9: Nutritional modulation of exercise-induced immunodepression in athletes: Eur J Clin Nutr 61 4: Iron, copper and immunocompetence.
Br J Nutr 98 Suppl 1: Influence of preoperative administration of omega-3 fatty acid-enriched supplement on inflammatory and immune responses in patients undergoing major surgery for cancer. Quercetin reduces illness but not immune perturbations after intensive exercise.
Med Sci Sports Exerc 39 9: The effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on immune function in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr 59 6: Modulating the immune response by oral zinc supplementation: Arch Immunol Ther Exp 56 1: Supplementation of healthy volunteers with nutritionally relevant amounts of selenium increases the expression of lymphocyte protein biosynthesis genes.
Am J Clin Nutr 87 1: Effect of and mg vitamin E supplements on cellular immune function in non-institutionalized elderly persons. Am J Clin Nutr 69 6: The effect of dietary supplementation with vitamins A, C and E on cell-mediated immune function in elderly long-stay patients: Age Aging 20 3: A randomized double-blind controlled study of 6 months of oral nutritional supplementation with arginine and omega-3 fatty acids in HIV-infected patients.
Zinc supplementation decreases incidence of infections in the elderly: Effects of zinc supplementation as adjunct therapy on the systemic immune responses in shigellosis. Am J Clin Nutr 81 2: Zinc and iron supplementation and malaria, diarrhea, and respiratory infections in children in the Peruvian Amazon. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75 1: Higher serum vitamin D concentrations are associated with longer leukocyte telomere length in women. Am J Clin Nutr 86 5: Acute lower respiratory infections in childhood: Bull World Health Organ 86 5: Soy isoflavones modulate immune function in healthy postmenopausal women.
Am J Clin Nutr 83 5: Ryan-Harshman M, Aldoori W. Can J Diet Pract Res 66 2: Short-and long-term beta-carotene supplementation do not influence T cell-mediated immunity in healthy elderly persons. Am J Clin Nutr 66 4: Schauber J, Gallo RL. The vitamin D pathway: Exp Dermatol 17 8: Vitamin D as an immune modulator in multiple sclerosis, a review.
J Neuroimmunol Stephen AI, Avenell A. A systematic review of multivitamin and multimineral supplementation for infection. J Hum Nutr Diet 19 3: Effects of probiotic supplementation for the first 6 months of life on allergen- and vaccine-specific immune responses. Clin Exp Allergy 36 Regulation of vitamin D homeostasis: Nutr Rev 66 10 Suppl 2: Villamor E, Fawzi WW. Effects of vitamin a supplementation on immune responses and correlation with clinical outcomes.
Clin Microbiol Rev 18 3: Pediatr Res 65 5 Pt 2: J Biol Chem 4: Webb AL, Villamor E. Nutr Rev 65 5: Vitamin D signaling, infectious diseases, and regulation of innate immunity.
Infect Immun 76 9: Effect of a dietary supplement containing probiotic bacteria plus vitamins and minerals on common cold infections and cellular immune parameters. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 43 7: Contribution of selected vitamins and trace elements to immune function. Ann Nutr Metab 51 4: Ann Nutr Metab 50 2: Zinc deficiency enhanced inflammatory response by increasing immune cell activation and inducing IL6 promoter demethylation.
Mol Nutr Food Res. Wu D, Meydani SN. Age-associated changes in immune and inflammatory responses: J Leukoc Biol Vitamin D for treatment and prevention of infectious diseases: Endocr Pract 15 5: A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E and beta carotene for age-related cataract and vision loss.
Arch Ophthalmol 9: Bamini Gopinath et al. Homocysteine, folate, vitamin B, and y incidence of age-related macular degeneration. Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective techniques. Invest Opthamol Vis Sci 41 Resonance Raman measurement of macular carotenoids in normal subjects and in age related macular degeneration patients. Clinical trial of lutein in patients with retinitis pigmentosa receiving vitamin A. Arch Ophthalmol 4: Distribution of macular pigment components, zeaxanthin and lutein, in human retina.
Methods in Enzymology Macular pigment in donor eyes with and without AMD: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 42 1: A prospective study of carotenoid intake and risk of cataract extraction in US men.
Am J Clin Nutr 70 4: High-dose vitamin E supplementation normalizes retinal blood flow and creatinine clearance in patients with type 1 diabetes.
Diabetes Care 22 8: Associations between lutein, zeaxanthin, and age-related macular degeneration: Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 49 4: A prospective study of carotenoid and vitamin A intakes and risk of cataract extraction in US women. A prospective study of vitamin supplement intake and cataract extraction among U. Prospective study of zinc intake and the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Ann Epidemiol 11 5: Dietary antioxidants and primary prevention of age related macular degeneration: Prospective cohort study of antioxidant vitamin supplement use and the risk of age-related maculopathy.
Am J Epidemiol 5: Take into account the person's:. Ensure there is adequate time in the consultation to provide information and answer questions. Provide contact details so that the person can get in touch when they are ready. The focus may be on either weight maintenance or weight loss, depending on the person's age and stage of growth.
Give praise to successes and encourage parents to role-model desired behaviours. Recommend types of physical activity, including:. Take into account the person's current physical fitness and ability for all activities. Encourage people to also reduce the amount of time they spend inactive, such as watching television, using a computer or playing video games.
Make the choice of activity with the child, and ensure it is appropriate to the child's ability and confidence. Consider counselling and assess for eating disorders or other psychopathology to make sure the diet is appropriate for them.
Tell them that this is not a long-term weight management strategy, and that regaining weight may happen and is not because of their own or their clinician's failure. Discuss the reintroduction of food following a liquid diet with them. It is essential that any dietary recommendations are part of a multicomponent intervention.
Changes should be sustainable. Make arrangements for appropriate healthcare professionals to offer information, support and counselling on additional diet, physical activity and behavioural strategies when drug treatment is prescribed. Provide information on patient support programmes. Prescribing should be started and monitored only in specialist paediatric settings. Treatment should be started in a specialist paediatric setting, by multidisciplinary teams with experience of prescribing in this age group.
Agree the goals with the person and review them regularly. See also recommendation 1. All appropriate non-surgical measures have been tried but the person has not achieved or maintained adequate, clinically beneficial weight loss.