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In conseguenza dell utilizzo sul suolo di liquami, non inseriti in un bilancio fra asportazione delle colture e apporti azotati fertilizzanti di sintesi ed organici , si evidenzia un alto rischio di lisciviazione dell azoto nell acqua di falda. Noventa e nove por cento dos In fact, total uptakes were proportional to yield values with significant differences also between N1 and N2 70 vs 91 kg N ha The initial OC was 1. By contrast, a too narrow interpretation could lead to serious environmental damage. The research was carried out in the years — at the University of Pisa Italy, Three different fertilization systems were compared using the same N target rate of kg ha
Si a pesar de haberse inscrito no consta en este listado, favor comunicarse con el señor Director de Carrera. Cieza de León Tlf: Criterios para el otorgamiento del apoyo: Lista ordenada de los aspirantes a enseñanzas modulares y plazas que se ofertan en cada ciclo formativo de grado superior.
Sergio Alejandro Arteaga Carreño Dr. Sergio Alejandro Medina Moreno Extensión: Reyes Rojas Huvert Fernando. Primer Semestre "A" Ingles Profra. Ernesto Gonzalez Rodríguez Lab. Matas de Granada Autobaremo Baremo Fecha actualización: Die Wandleuchte wird ohne Leuchtmittel geliefert. Sie haben die Möglichkeit die Leuchte mit zwei E14 Leuchtmitteln bis max. Die Leuchte hat eine Länge von 38,0 cm, eine Ausladung von 16,0 cm und eine Höhe von 23,2 cm.
Die Leuchte wird mit einem Steckertrafo mit einem 2 m Kabel geliefert und kann so überall dort angebracht werden wo sich eine Steckdose in der Nähe befindet. Starten Sie Ihre ganz persönliche Gartenparty. Durch das rotierende Leuchtmittel wird ein Disco-Effekt erzeugt. Sie haben die Möglichkeit die Leuchte mit einem E14 Leuchtmittel bis max. Die Leuchte hat eine Länge von 25,0 cm, eine Ausladung von 11,5 cm und eine Höhe von 21,0 cm. Durch die Projektion der rotierenden Lichteffekte verleihen Sie Ihren Wohnräumen immer wieder eine faszinierende Optik.
Im Lieferumfang sind sechs verschiedene Musterplatten enthalten, die sich ganz einfach auswechseln lassen. So können Sie zum Beispiel Schneeflocken über die Wand tanzen lassen. Das Leuchtmittel strahlt aus dem Inneren die rotierende Musterplatte an und die entsprechenden Motive werden dann auf die Wand projiziert.
Die aus schlagfesten Kunststoff gefertigte Leuchte ist mit einem integriertem 5,0 Watt Lautsprecher Bluetooth geeignet ausgestattet. Distribution and metal-accumulating behaviour of Thlaspicaerulescens and associated metallophytes in France. Hyperaccumulators of metal and metalloid trace elements: Accumulation of Pb, Cu, and Zn in native plants growing on a contaminated Florida site. Agriculture, Food and Environment, Univ. On the other hand, soil degradation processes erosion, salinization, desertification, contamination, etc.
This means that urbanization is still expanding and lowland areas close to cities and with the most fertile soils are converted gradually to urban neighborhoods, shopping centers, industrial areas, and infrastructures. The issue of land protection from degradation is getting increasing attention in the policy agenda, both globally and at the European level. So far, this document is still missing.
In order to achieve the UN goal on land degradation neutrality, two relevant conditions should be met: This presentation is focused specifically on the second option: Objective In many industrial activities, from house building to road construction, from mining to quarry cultivations, etc. When construction works are completed or the project is over, operating companies should reclaim the disturbed land, returning it to conditions that enable its use for other purposes, such as farmland or semi-natural habitat.
Soil-forming materials from overburden, properly selected, cleaned and physically separated, could be used also in the manufacturing of plant growing media to be used in nursery, gardening, and protected horticulture and greenhouse cultivations.
It must be emphasised, indeed, that without a suitable, coherent and viable legal support regulatory system and the consequent authorization procedures , nothing of what is technically possible is actually feasible.
Synoptic diagram of the different options in the waste art. C Under specific conditions art. This happen when a further use is certain, lawful, healthy, environmentally sound, without extra processing other than normal industrial practices art.
Reutilization site is to be known in advance. The European Commission should set such criteria for each specific category of materials. Soil-waste is not included so far. E Waste recovery art. Considering soil-waste, the recovery typology is R5: Conclusions Notwithstanding the significant improvements in the EU legislation framework, the national regulatory system is still in progress and addressing its interpretation is difficult; therefore, fulfil the permitting procedures is complex and several constraints should be loosened.
At regulatory level, a proper trade-off between a too broad and a too narrow definition of waste still needs to be found.
Soil-waste represents a typical example: By contrast, a too narrow interpretation could lead to serious environmental damage. Be simple in rules but faultless in the control through serious traceability tools should be the best way to follow.
Like other Lamiaceae, its seeds exhibit myxospermy: The role of chia mucilage on the stability of soil was studied in this research through the determination of aggregate stability in analogy with other plant hydrogels Morel et al. The composition of mucilage was also investigated in order to clarify the mechanisms of soil stabilization. Methods Mucilage was extracted from black chia seeds obtained from Eichenhain www.
A factorial design with three replications was tested: Concentration of mucilage with three levels: Soil texture with three levels: At 1, 7 and 30 days aggregates were saturated under vacuum and stability was determined through wet sieving on a stack of sieves 0.
The dimensional distribution and the stability of aggregates percent in dry weight of aggregates collected on the 1 mm sieve, Traoré et al. Soil respiration was measured as CO2 emission after incubation with 0. The effect was stronger in the sandy loam texture and less pronounced in the clay loam soil. It persisted until the end of the incubation period.
The percentage of aggregates collected in sieves with opening smaller than 1 mm, conversely, were higher in control treatments. Nevertheless about half of the organic carbon added with the mucilage was left in the soil at the end of the day incubation period. Polysaccharides and uronic groups were found in the mucilage.
Percentage dry weight of soil aggregates retained on sieves after wet-sieving at different times of incubation. Conclusions The mucilage extracted from chia seeds, exerts a significant increase of soil aggregate stability, which persists in time in spite of increases in soil respiration. Mechanisms of soil bonding analogous to xanthan and linked to the presence of charged groups can be inferred from 13C-CPMAS.
Our results open new perspectives to the interpretation of the ecological services of myxospermous crop seeds for surface soil stability.
Influence of maize root mucilage on soil aggregate stability. Plant and Soil, , Effect of root mucilage and modelled root exudates on soil structure. European Journal of Soil Science, 51, New EU regulations promoting sustainable agricultural inputs and the introduction of reduced tillage system, which could result in substantial energy savings Alhajj Ali et al.
Soil management practices play a very important impact on soil quality by changing the soil organic carbon SOC concentration with a subsequent effect on the GHG emissions from the soil. The importance of SOC and the ability of agricultural soil to sequester carbon, as a climate-change-mitigating strategy, has received great attention worldwide in relation to soil management. In fact, agricultural soils can be considered as a net sink or source for greenhouse gases GHGs depending on many factors including soil management practices, cropping systems and weather conditions.
If proper management is applied Alhajj Ali et al. Conservative tillage systems studies reported to give benefit to both the soil structure and the organic matter content especially in arid and semi-arid climates where the stability of aggregates and soil structure improved under conservative soil management techniques.
This study evaluates the effects of different soil tillage techniques on the physical properties of soil in a typical Mediterranean area of southern Italy. The aim of presentstudy is to determine the effect of tillage system, crop rotation, on SOC content in the 0- to cm profile of a 7 year experiment conducted under rainfed Mediterranean conditions in southern Italy.
On 9 ha surface are rotated durum wheat Triticum turgidum L. Iride and faba bean Viciafaba var. The main treatments, according a strip plot design, consisted of three levels of soil disturbance, as follows: In the last three years, the stability of soil aggregates to shaking in water was also measured, on triplicate samples with the method of Tiulin—Meyer modified as in Cavazza and Linsalata Results The results revealed that the organic carbon concentrations varied significantly as a function of year, soil depth and the system of soil management Fig 1.
During the years, the SOC concentration increase from 40 Atti del XLV Convegno della Società Italiana di Agronomia Sassari, Settembre an average of 11 g kg-1 of soil in the first years to 14,2 g kg-1 of soil in sixth year, , and significative difference between the years and data that progressively, year by year, increased. In , as expected, the SOC difference between the tillage system e values were not significative, considering the tillage system, with values that ranging between 11,6 to 12,4 g kg Considering the profile, the difference were significative only between deeper profile cm , 8,3 g kg-1, respect to the other three deep , , , cm , that show a mean of 13,1 g kg-1 and no differences between them.
In instead the values of SOC, in general, increased respect to The difference between the tillage system Figure 1 - Organic carbon concentration g kg Large differences instead were found between the profiles: The analysis of the structure stability under different treatments confirmed the influence of the soil management on the soil structure.
The higher value, in average, was found in CT tillage Comparing the three depths separately we found, in cm profile, impressive difference in NT system, were the value reached Conclusion The study clearly show the temporal effects of rotation and tillage on SOC content and distribution. Compared with other treatments, in NT tillage SOC significantly increased in the upper profile, while on the other tillage the values were uniform along the layers.
However, benefits associated with CT system on the physical property of the soil is clear, as showed from the soil structure stability and the productive response of cultivations during the years data unpublished. Changes in soil organic carbon and nitrogen as affected by tillage and residue management under wheat—maize cropping system in the North China Plain. Contamination of heavy metals deriving from illegal waste disposal and dumping represents one of the most pressing threats to water and soil resources as well as human health.
Phytoremediation can be potentially used for risk managements and remediation of these metalcontaminated sites. This study aimed at evaluating the potential for phytoremediation of native plant species growing on a farmland contaminated by past disposal and dumping of tannery sludges. Plant and soil samples were collected from a farmland, heavy contaminated by Zn and Crby tannery sludges dumping.
The agricultural site is located in south Italy Giugliano — Campania Region. Within each plot, spontaneous plants species with the higher soil coveragewere collected and rhizo soil from the cm depth soil layer was sampled together with vegetation.
A composite sample representative of plants shoots and roots and soil of each plot was analyzed for total HM content by acid digestion and ICP-MS. For metals not included in the current legislation mean values recorded for grasses grown on normal soils KabataPendias, were used as reference. Bioaccumulation factor of roots BAFroots , calculated as the ratio of HM content of the roots to that in soil; translocation factors TF , which is defined as the ratio of metal concentration in the shoots to the roots; Bioaccumulation factor of shoots BAFshoots calculated as the ratio plant shoot concentration to soil concentration.
In heavily contaminated plots i. Selected properties of the collected plant and soil samplesare given in Table1. All plant species showed Zn shoot concentration above values given by Kabata-Pendias for unpolluted soils with maximum value found in P11CR1.
Zn concentration in soil ranged from to mg kg-1 beyond limits of Italian legislation mg kg TF was higher than 1 for P6AR1 1. Cr concentration in shoots ranged from 1. All values were above those given by Kabata-Pendias in unpolluted soils. TF was higher than 1 for P11CR1 3. Total content of Zn and Cr innative plants and soils from a farmland polluted by tannery sludges Conclusions: None of the screened plant species had hyperaccumulator characteristics, while all exhibited high adaptability to Zn and Cr contaminated soil.
The highest accumulation of Zn and Cr was observed in Cyperus rotundus showing Zn and Cr content in shoots 3 and 23 times higher than value found in grasses from unpolluted soils. High Cr accumulation was also observed in C. The high accumulation of Zn and Cr by C. Assessment of phytoremediation potential of native plants duringthe reclamation of an area affected by sewage sludge.
Yoon J et al. Italy is one of the leader producer in the world of durum wheat Triticum durum Desf. Basilicata is the third region in Italy for durum wheat production. In Basilicata, agricultural soils underwent continuous degradation during the last century due to the highly erodible nature of outcropping terrains and to the anthropic pressure favored by the introduction of CAP measures, which has led to the reclamation of scrub lands and badlands for durum wheat cultivation Capolongo et al.
This practice increased soil erosion, implying an enlargement of the surface area exposed to physical phenomena of erosion. An appropriate soil tillage and residues management could help to significantly reduce soil erosion by means of organic matter increasing and soil surface exposure reducing.
To assess typical long-term effects of soil management on soil fertility, the crop simulation models are tools that after the proper calibration and validation process Garofalo et al. In this research, CropSyst model Stockle et al. Methods CropSyst model was applied in the 6 main traditional production areas of Basilicata of durum wheat for a total of 15 soil profiles Lavello, Matera, Potenza, Val d'Agri, Vulture and medium basin of Agri-Sauro rivers.
In this model activity 13 years of continuous wheat in 6 different management scenarios were simulated: The evaluated output variables were biomass and grain yield, water used and percolated, soil organic carbon content SOC. Simulations covered a period over 13 years from to using daily climatic data recorded by 6 weather stations located less than 30 km far from the soils used in the simulation. Results Conventional management ensured the best crop performance kg ha-1 , comparable to the other treatments where the straw left on the soil was managed MNT and NOT and highest if compared to the reduced input tillage and straw removal Table 2.
Burning of straw CV caused a reduction of the soil organic carbon content kg ha-1 y-1 , whereas the other practices allowed an increase in the soil carbon stock, especially when straw was left on the soil and ranging from kg ha-1 y-1 in conservative management to 86 kg ha-1 y-1 in minimum tillage.
Crop management scenarios simulated by CropSyst model. Average values of durum wheat grain and biomass yield, percolated and used water and crop nitrogen uptaken 13 years simulated by CropSyst model in the six management scenarios. For scenarios abbreviations, see Table 1. Conclusions CropSyst model indicated an improvement in SOC under reduced and no tillage treatments, but the highest soil carbon stock enrichment was achieved when the straw was left on the soil.
This would require a supplementary amount of mineral nitrogen fertilizer at least in the short-middle term of transition from conventional to conservative regime to obtain comparable grain yield. Spatial and temporal variations in soil erosion and deposition due to land-levelling in a semi-arid area of Basilicata Southern Italy.
Durum wheat Triticum durum Desf. In rotation with the faba bean Vicia faba var minor L. A long-term simulation case-study. For this reason, agriculture land conservation is a high priority for Egypt. Productive land resources in Egypt are under multiple natural and human pressure and are leading to soil degradation and desertification. The prevailing surface irrigation techniques, combined with the overuse of irrigation water, exerts pressure on the drainage system.
This problem, combined with the dominant heavy textured alluvial soils of the old Nile Valley, lead to an increase of water logging and soil salinity. The situation of irrigated areas is getting worse because the main source of irrigation comes from the River Nile that contains high concentrations of pollutants mostly residues of fertilizers and pesticides. Moreover the very rapid population growth is causing an expansion of urban areas in particular over the fertile agricultural land.
Urbanization is one of the most serious land degradation processes in the country. A Master on SLM will concretely handle the issues of agricultural land management, soil degradation and desertification, as well as population growth and related urbanization, thus helping to build thorough knowledge on these problems. Egypt signed the UN Convention to Combat Desertification in and took measures to restrict urban development and regulate irrigation systems.
However, despite these actions, the combination of farmland degradation and the increase of population are posing a significant threat to the domestic food production. Several efforts have been undertaken by the government authorities of Egypt in order to reduce desertification processes and preserve land productivity.
A Master on SLM could be integrated in these policy efforts, since it will specifically address the issue of desertification.
Though, these efforts face a wide range of obstacles, mostly related to the following constraints: It is now evident that new approaches have to be taken into account to overcome all the mentioned issues and achieve a more balanced approach on decision-making regarding sustainable land uses. Multidisciplinary knowledge, integrated analysis and complex problem solving skills are at the centre of all sustainable land management approaches, therefore multidisciplinarity has been defined as a priority at the Partner Country level.
ILHAM-EC aims to introduce a new Master on SLM in the curricula of the involved Egyptian universities and build a cooperative and international network in order to enhance technical, methodological and analytic skills of both teachers and students to increase their professionalism and allowing them to be able to face the complexity of land degradation and desertification processes.
Expected Results What is innovative about ILHAM-EC is that it makes use of technologies to improve the availability of digital resources to support teachers and students in the learning processes and in the development of critical and analytical skills. In fact the educational modules implemented on the e-learning platform will be available also after the end of the project, thus increasing the possibility to train a larger number of people compared with a traditional classroom-based training.
The didactic modules will be developed using different multimedia systems. Scribing converts concepts into a graphic format, translating the main ideas of a speech into keywords and graphics. This technique can also help to capture concepts that are sometimes lost and it can reinforce the memorisation of thoughts and ideas. The use of these ITC didactic tools and the web 2.
The educational game will oblige players to take decisions to solve complex and interdisciplinarily questions by relying on previously acquired knowledge. Through selected actions, players will progress in the game levels achieving the outcome of a sustainable land management and developing different types of skills and cognitive capacities.
The tools of the e-learning platforms, such as blogs, will be used also by the local HEIs, the partners of the consortium and other stakeholders to build an educational and cooperation network able to allow exchange knowledge and intensify collaboration. All the resources, available under the Creative Commons license 4. We expect that at European level, the ILHAM-EC will have a strong impact on the scientific community through the process of sharing knowledge across borders and access to shared problems, challenges and solutions.
The seeding sod seeding and minimum tillage are agricultural practices that involve minimal alteration of the soil; therefore part of all the practices and agricultural systems called Conservative Agriculture.
The goal of Conservative Agriculture is to promote agricultural production by optimizing the use of resources and help reduce land degradation through the integrated management of land, water and biological resources, in association with the use of external inputs. Agricultures classic plowing is replaced by surface plowing or not plowing sod seeding , which favor the natural mixing of the layers by the soil fauna earthworms , roots and other soil organisms, which, also contribute to the balance of nutrients in the soil.
Soil fertility nutrients and water is managed through soil covering, crop rotation, and the fight against weeds weeding. We presently have some experience of minimum tillage and sod seeding on two different productive situations in Sardinian agriculture, rice and thickening pastures with forage species; these crops are in our region, and are not among those which the conservation practices are taking over mainly cereal crops.
The aim is to highlight the benefits of conservative agriculture also on rice and forage culture, both in relation to soil conservation, for the productive and economic aspects of the farm.
Methods The cultivation of rice finds in Sardinia the optimal production conditions in the coastal territory of the province of Oristano, an area of about ha. The soils are mainly derived from recent alluvial deposits of the river Tirso and rivers of its watershed.
To achieve the conservation tillage trial a rice field was chosen as representative for both the environmental aspects and agricultural practices. The minimum tillage was implemented to a depth not exceeding 0,10 m; where rice Long A — Carnaroli was later sown using a Gaspardo Model Diretta corsa of 3 m wide.
This machine model has allowed to make a PK fertilization in the vicinity of the seed. Afterwards an operation of weeding was carried out using a pre-emergency Pendimethalin based product. The sowing was done with kg ha-1 with a distance of 0,17 m apart. The area of approximately 1 ha was first cleaned using a brushcutter chain that has shredded the topsoil plants; then sowing with a Gaspardo Model Direttissima 2,50 m wide.
They used Trifolium subterraneum, Vicia sativa and Lolium italicum for a total of 40 kg ha It is observed that the plants sown with the sod seeding technique present the first internodes shortened, making the plant more resistant to lodging.
Moreover, thanks to the weed control technique in pre-emergence, permitted by the sod seeding technique, there was a greater control of Echinochloa crus-galli. The technique has allowed the farmer considerable savings of resources and time, as the cultivation operations are carried out in one step, instead of three steps, as required by traditional practices. The placement of the phosphate fertilizer near the seedlings, which took place in May marked by somewhat lower temperatures than the monthly average, favored a much faster growth than traditional seeds.
This allows greater rice growth compared to weed. Evidence of thickening with forage species has had a good result; the soil especially presented very limited erosion phenomena, unlike what takes place on slopes which are very susceptible to erosion, when not suitable tools and techniques are used. The particular drill disc has the advantage of leaving the stones on site that are on the surface and below the first centimeters of soil, rather than left on the ground, helping to protect it from erosion, avoiding the formation of rills in the soil.
Conclusions Farmers have found evidence of sod seeding on rice very suitable and feasible to local farms, also regarding the use of his own agricultural machinery. In fact all the first cultivation operations can be performed with simple rubber wheels, by resorting to the more expensive toothed wheels only when the crop is at an advanced stage. The techniques used for the thickening with forage species favor the preservation of organic matter content in the soil and help to recover the land covered by Cistus monspeliensis, that are risk areas for summer fires.
References Paola Battilani et al. Difesa sostenibile delle colture. Principi, sistemi e tecnologie applicate alle produzioni agricole. To face this problem, habitat improvements are often required in order to recreate suitable environments to a particular species and to attract animals away from cultivated crops in specific periods. A common example of these interventions is represented by grassland restoration, often necessary for the reduction of open areas in many European territories due to the reduction of grazing activity Cervasio et al.
To assess wild animals feeding preferences and to monitor animal intake on different kind of forage crops, a specific research was carried out in in an area of Central Italy. The two pure stands were Onobrychis viciifolia and Medicago sativa; the four mixtures differed for number of species and their percentage, and were represented by commercial forage mix or specific mixtures for faunistic purposes.
Data collection consisted on linear transects on plots in different periods to obtain relative abundant presence of each species SRA, Daget and Poissonet, Along a transect, a visual estimation of animal utilization was performed on occurring species using the following scale: Moreover, six camera traps Sorbetti et al.
Analysis of the videos permitted to recognize animal species and to identify plots utilised by the animals in each event of grazing. Data of video-trapping were then compared to those observed by vegetation analysis. Results Average data of different periods for the two pure stands and for the four mixtures are reported in table 1.
At the same time, average defoliation rate was not significantly different among treatments, and it was quite low. On the other hand, significant differences were found among treatments concerning total events of browsing coming from botanical analysis and from videos recorded by camera traps: Relationship between percentage of DR and videos for each treatment The two method used to estimate animal preference on each treatment by means of botanical analysis and by camera traps produced similar results figure 1 , even if more analysis should be conducted in different periods of the year as animal preferences can be affected by different environmental factors.
Conclusions Even if these are only preliminary results, the methods tested in this experimentation seem able to assess in a proper way feeding preferences of wild animals, confirming previous results conducted in other areas Argenti et al. Further investigations are necessary to discover real utilization on spontaneous species in order to create peculiar mixtures especially devoted to wild animals for offering them alternative feeding resources to agricultural crops.
Control of bracken Pteridium aquilinum and feeding preferences in pastures grazed by wild ungulates in an area of the Northern Apennines Italy.
Agronomic methods for mountain grassland habitat restoration for faunistic purposes in a protected area of the northern Apennines Italy. IForest, in press, doi: Influence of agricultural crops adjacent to forest on woody species browsing: Sistemi automatici per il monitoraggio della fauna selvatica e la prevenzione dei danni alle produzioni agricole e forestali. Despite a recent favourable conjuncture, Sardinian dairy sheep farming systems suffered a deep structural crisis and an effective renovation process is needed in order to contrast the high dependency on external markets, the limited generational change of the sector and the on-going abandonment of rural areas.
Eco-innovation of production system is considered a key factor to improve the farms competitiveness and to valorise the typical Mediterranean dairy sheep products. The environmental impacts of animal production systems can be evaluated by using the Life Cycle Assessment LCA method. The main objective of this paper was to compare the environmental impacts of two different sheep milk production processes carried out in the same farm, taking into account the inventory data coming from year , with a high-input production process, and , with a low-input production process, by using a LCA approach.
Methods Data were collected from a dairy sheep farm located in the Province of Sassari, North-western Sardinia. The farm is representative in terms of dimension, productivity and capital good of sheep farms operating in Sardinian hilly areas.
Production system changed between and , when the farm management was oriented toward the transformation of the whole milk production to cheese, directly at the farm.
The two production systems differed mainly in terms of intensification of forage production Table 1 , moving the company from a system based on cereal crops wheat and barley grain , annual forage crops ryegrass and oats, mainly and maize for silage, to a system characterized by an extensive use of natural and artificial pastures, with the use of native legumes-grasses mixtures and low-input farming practices minimum tillage, reduced use of fertilizers, etc.
Main characteristics of the two compared production systems. The life cycle was assessed "from cradle to gate", including in the system boundaries all the input and output related to sheep milk production.
The analysis included the amount of fodder crops and pastures consumed by flocks, after crosschecking forage production and nutritional needs based on gender, age, 54 Atti del XLV Convegno della Società Italiana di Agronomia Sassari, Settembre weight, physiological stage and production level of animals.
The LCA was conducted using two evaluation methods: Results The estimated life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of 1 kg of FPCM were higher for the most intensive system , ranging from 4. The results from the ReCiPe end-point method assessment followed a trend similar to IPCC method, with environmental impacts equal to Reduced carbon footprint and lower environmental performance in the most extensive system can be explained by a lower impact of enteric methane emissions, a lower use of pea-based protein feed, and a minor use of the agricultural machineries Table 2.
By contrast, in both methods have highlighted a greater impact related to the use of soybean meal and maize grain. Percentage contribution of the most relevant processes to the total environmental impact of the two production systems in comparison vs.
A life cycle impact assessment method which comprises harmonised category indicators at the midpoint and the endpoint level, First ed. IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Evaluation quantitative des émissions de méthane entérique par les animaux d'élevage en en France. Angelo Lodigiano, IT 4 Dip. Milano, IT Introduction In current high-yielding cropping systems, the efficient application of nitrogen fertilizers NF is essential, as it allows modern cultivars to express their yield potential Sinclair and Rufty, Optimizing the timing and dose of NF is a key challenge for global agriculture Tilman, , which is in charge of increasing food production while minimizing environmental pollution due to nitrate leaching, N denitrification and volatilization Mueller et al.
In northern Italy, the two crops extend for more than , ha, and are mainly cultivated in vulnerable zones for nitrate leaching Acutis et al. Improving the management of NF is then crucial to determine win-win scenarios between yield and sustainability of these cropping systems. Precision agriculture could support this objective, leading to an effective management of the spatial and temporal components of soil and crop variability.
The DIAnA project proposes a framework to integrate the information collected by proximal and remote sensing methods to assess soil variability and to diagnose crop growth, i. The project will assess the nonlinear response of wheat and barley crops to NF via experimental trials carried out in a study area located in northern Italy during cropping season. Methods The project is organized in four work packages WP , which are presented in Figure 1.
Three homogeneous management zones were identified in each field, based on the EC monitoring, and one experimental area was placed in each of them. The soil water content was daily monitored with probes at different soil depths task 1.
WP3 have been measuring dry matter and N content in AGB and yield to produce the reference data to compare the performances of the methods task 3.
Bromatological and fiber digestibility analyses on wheat harvested at milk maturity stage will assess its qualitative value for feeding purposes task 3. WP4 will analyse the relationships between reference data and the quali-quantitative value of crop production task 4.
Collected data will be available as Microsoft Access database. N0 N1 N2 N level Figure 2. Map of soil electric conductivity of the wheat field left and data collected by proximal sensors in the three experimental areas on April, 29th right.
These values, which will be regressed to reference N content for sensors calibration, are lower in A3 than in A1 and A2. It is likely that a consistent fraction of applied N was leached in A3 due to the very low soil clay content.
Conclusions The effective detection of crop N status is one of the frontiers of modern agriculture, which is moving towards the implementation of precision agriculture at larger scales.
This project, still ongoing, lays the basis for a fruitful integration of soil-crop sensing methods to identify the optimal dose of NF. An integrated and GIS-based decision support system for livestock manure management in the Lombardy region northern Italy.
Land Use Policy Closing yield gaps through nutrient and water management. Nitrogen and water resources commonly limit crop yield increases, not necessarily plant genetics. Too much of a good thing. Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices.
Introduction The competition between crops and weeds within a field is the major biotic factor determining yield losses in arable crops. Non-chemical weed management is not always effective, therefore the application of herbicides is the norm in conventional management of field crops. It is well known that the continued use of herbicides entails consistent economic and environmental drawbacks Zanin et al. The knowledge of the spatial distribution of weeds across the fields could allows to apply precision agriculture techniques of site-specific weed management, significantly reducing the economic and environmental impact of herbicide spraying Gerhards et al.
In this work the potential of unmanned aerial vehicles UAVs to support a sustainable weed management was assessed. In particular UAVs data were used to assist patch-spraying herbicide treatments in winter wheat and horse bean crops.
Methods The experimentation was carried out in Vetralla Viterbo, Central Italy over two growing seasons and The tests concerned three fields: Three different herbicide strategies were tested in each field: C2 was divided into 60 plots, in this case each treatment has twenty repetitions.
A prescription map obtained by UAV data was used to apply herbicide treatment. Two different UAVs flew over the fields few days before the herbicide treatments: The maps of weed distribution across the fields were obtained by the elaboration of the UAV images. A supervised classification, based on support vector machine algorithm SVM , was used to discriminate between soil and weeds. A regular grid with cells of 2 x 2 m was superimposed on the weed maps. Then, the prescription maps were uploaded onto a GPS Control System mounted on the tractor, which regulated the opening and closing of the independent sections of the boom sprayer.
Each independent section of the boom sprayer is 2 m wide and has 4 nozzles. At UAV acquisition time, fifteen rectangles 1 x 0. A photograph was taken from a height of 1. The weed dry biomass was also measured with the same drying process used for grain. The differences between herbicide treatments were evaluated in terms of dry grain yield values and they were analysed spatially using a pseudo cross-variogram and a standardized ordinary cokriging Bishop and Lark A good relationship between weed coverage obtained from UAV data and that measured on the ground was obtained: Level of significance of the grain yield differences in C1 between a blanket application and untreated control, b patch spraying and untreated control, c blanket application and patch spraying.
Conclusions The accuracy of weed map obtained by UAV images was considered satisfactory as compared to ground data. The results showed that the UAV data can be used to assist sustainable weed management, leading to a decrease in the use of herbicide without significant difference in terms of crop yield. The geostatistical analysis of experiments at the landscape-scale. Practical experiences with a system for site-specific weed control in arable crops using real-time image analysis and GPS-controlled patch spraying.
Weed detection for site-specific weed management: La gestione integrata delle malerbe: Un approccio sostenibile per il contenimento delle perdite di produzione e la salvaguardia dell'ambiente. Italian Journal of Agronomy 6, Reducing soil tillage is indeed considered to produce relevant economic and environmental positive outcomes Holland , Hobbs et al. However, the adoption of CA systems requires modifications in terms of crop management and one of the most problematic aspects is weed control Hobbs et al.
As mechanical weed control is limited in CA systems, dependence on herbicides increases especially in the first years of transition Holland , Hobbs et al. Moreover, the layers of crop residues on soil surface can decrease the efficacy of pre-emergence herbicides by adsorbing the active ingredients and preventing them to reach the germinating seeds in the soil Chauhan et al. Consequently, weed control is usually based on post-emergence herbicides whose efficacy is related to the application timing and weed size.
Weed emergence models can help to select the correct timing for herbicide application, however the available models were developed for arable field conditions Masin et al. Specific calibrations can be necessary before adopting these models to predict weed emergence in CA systems because the environmental conditions experienced by seeds are different Chauhan et al.
Seeds in CA systems are located on soil surface Swanton et al. Surface-located seeds experience greater changes in relative dormancy and high annual germination even if the scarce seed-soil contact can limit seed imbibition Bullied et al. Thick layers of crop residues on soil surface can instead inhibit germination and reduce weed emergence Chauhan et al.
Comparing weed emergence in fields managed according to conventional and CA systems represents a crucial step to calibrate the existing models for specific environmental conditions. Weed emergence was monitored in two maize fields managed under arable conventional plot and CA no-till plot farming practices: