I eventually started having chest pain I guess the cold sweat-soaked cloth? I googled the surgery and the University of Michigan had a video of the procedure, see link below: Any remedies you have tried that seem to work or at least help a bit. One must go through the list of 12 types of stress above, identify each one that pertains to their situation and address them accordingly. When a message comes into the brain from anywhere in the body, the brain tells the body how to react. U of M Surgical Procedure for Hyperhidrosis. Ive had excema when i was a child to teen.
Autonomic Nervous System
Good luck - Sincerely, Dr Chad Reply. Cheryl on January 19, at 6: Thank you so much for this wonderful article. I feel I have all the symptoms of a sympathetic dominance.
Sometimes, at night, I have terrible digestive issues and feel like my heart and or breath is not right, and felt like I needed urgent medical care. I'm just coming off a vegetarian diet. It's been a few days of eating lots of meat. But I just had another episode. Can I heal myself with diet, or do I need medical care? Thank you so so much in advance. Cheryl on January 19, at 2: I am also on synthroid for hypothyroidism, which I think I developed right after going vegetarian.
I've seen a gastro specialist and regular doctors, and have had numerous ultrasounds to no avail. Last night after an episode I was awake for hours trying yo calm down I also have been having cold hands, feet, body, allergies, sometimes frequent urination, brain fog, fatigue, etc.
Just hoping going back to eating meat will eventually balance me out. And I am not headed for a heart attack or heart failure. I appreciate you and your advice more than I can express. Thanks is an understatement. Oler, ND on January 23, at Hi Cheryl, Thanks for the comment and question.
I recommend that you contact a naturopathic doctor in your area to assist you. It is very likely that you can help correct the underlying imbalances causing most if not all of your symptoms with the correct guidance.
Cheryl on January 27, at 8: Hi, I'm new to this. I have an acute case of fibromyalgia and at times especially when it's cold or it rains my nerves kick into overdrive. But lately the nerves in my face are really doing a number on me. I had my thyroid taken out last year around this time but haven't had any trouble with the nerves in my face until a couple of weeks ago.
Could it be my fibromyalgia or the taking out of my thyroid that maybe causing this and if so, what can I do about it? Oler, ND on January 27, at 6: Hi Cherly, Thanks for the question; it's really hard to say without a more thorough workup. That should help point them in the right direction.
Amino acid therapy may also help; to learn more, please visit: Brady on March 5, at Hi, I was wondering whether the sympathetic nervous system can be overactivated by doing an intense crossfit workout. I eat very healthy plant based diet , but now am experiencing high blood pressure, elevated heart rate, fatigue, and night sweats after my workout weeks ago.
Oler, ND on March 6, at 6: It is very unlikely that the SNS can be over-activated after a single intense bout of exercise. It is certainly possible over time, especially if recovery is impaired.
Hope that helps - Dr Chad Reply. Brady on May 27, at 9: I also think I was inadequately recovering. Perrin on March 7, at 7: Does anyone notice an increased SNS most of the time. However shortly after eating the PSNS kicks in and a nap is needed? It seems that my autonomic system is very sensitive to both. Also I have had chronic pain from sciatic nerve issues for 9 years now. Oler, ND on March 7, at 8: Hi Leo - thanks for adding to this discussion. I suggest you start by keeping a food diary and eating balanced meals i.
If that doesn't get you the results you are looking for, look for an ND or functional medicine provider in your area to conduct follow up testing. Juanima on March 24, at 9: Chad, thank you so much for this article. I decided I did not want to risk that procedure with the limited studies on its actual effectiveness.
So in my search for natural treatment, I came across your article. I have been concerned about my protein levels. My family started this diet last July and for the most part, it's been very positive. I can see this would make a vegan diet more challenging, but I honestly haven't had an issue until recently.
Wow, that was a long-winded way to ask you a question! But I value your input. Oler, ND on April 2, at 3: I would suggest having your levels checked using a test like this one: You may also need additional fat-soluble vitamins, so having your nutritional status checked using a test like this one: Kelley on June 5, at 4: I hate benzodiazepines, 8 months ago I went through withdrawals from them, I believe making my nerve issues worse than before.
I can almost always feel my pulse in my feet and hands, more at night. I have had breathing issues since I was young, resting dyspnea not able to get a deep satisfying breath and it eventually can lead to panic. Diagnosed with severe panic and anxiety. My hands and feet cramp up often, with no defficiencies or dehydration. Constant phantom skin itching, again worse at night. Horrible night sweats, sometimes drenching. Strangely, I eat totally healthy, real whole unprocessed foods and exercise daily.
I guess I would like to know how to explain this to a doctor, or what type of doctor I should see besides a primary care. Oler, ND on June 5, at 4: Hi Kelley, Thanks for sharing; unfortunately, this is a very common situation where there is a disconnect between what you are experiencing and how a medical condition 'normally' presents. Carla Slates on June 9, at 2: It felt like my nervous system was being electrocuted on the inside.
With a tiny dose of amitriptyline 20mg per pm , a kind and patient GP, time, and mercy from the Good Lord, the vibrations have dwindled. Still there, but much lessened.
I am eating everything healthy, but a recent bout of h pylori have stored my nerves up a bit. It is certainly tied to my sympathetic nervous system, because my body is always in the heighted flight or fight feeling.
A good solid night sleep also helps a great deal If any neurologist has interest or k knowledge on this condition, I would be most grateful. More than you will ever know. Oler, ND on June 12, at 5: Sincerely, Dr Chad Reply. Jill Gough on July 16, at 1: Hi All- I am desperately trying to find answers to issues I am having.
I have that feeling all day long of a cool rush over my body and then a little bit of anxiousness. I can deal with it during the day, but the nights are awful. Oler, ND on July 16, at 3: We have also found several formulas very useful, including Serenagen and NuSera to facilitate a sense of calm: Alley on August 18, at 1: For almost my entire life I have had issues with some nervousness and what I realized finally are panic attacks or anxiety issues.
For the ladt years I have issues with severe bouts of excessive sweating that starts at the back of my neck and travels to my face and scalp. I can feel when this starts and I am not really physically stressing myself. Sometimes for no reason I am just sitting down and all of a sudden I feel the rush up the back of my neck..
I had a total hystetectomy at 41 and thought that I wad still having hot flashes I am now Is there any chance that my sympathetic nervous system os not operating properly Oler, ND on August 27, at 5: Hi Alley - thanks for contacting us; there could be several possible explanations, but you'd need further work up to find out what they are.
Jules on August 24, at 6: Hi, my daughter had her 2nd child 16 months ago, through his diatry priblens when he was 8 weeks because she was breast feeding she had to cut out diary and other foods over a period of a year.
She became so consumed in what he was reacting to that during the period she started getting off balance but not continually. Then my mum died in March this year and the off balance came back.
She now suffers constantly, off balance, flashing lights, very poor sleep and sometimes has to take a small dose of sleeping tablet. She is exhuasted all the time to a degree she has no energy to do anything and with a 16 month and 3 year old she feels she is a very bad mum. The doctors are useless and just try to give her depressiin tablets which she won't take as her system is very sensitive and they make things so much worse!
Will this ever go away as she is so down as she just wants to get back to how she was before? It sounds like there are possibly several underlying imbalances that need to be identified and corrected to help you daughter regain her health.
Joss on September 3, at Hi, I have severe Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Syndrome. My symptoms are severe muscle tightness, My body feels numb and like plastic. Burning and chemical smell. Compulsive craving for carbs and sugar. Constant feeling of hunger - no internal sensation of ever feeling full regardless of how much a I eat - literally no feedback to brain on this at all.
Terror of everyday objects, textures and patterns as if a I have suddenly developed severe autism. I had none of these symtoms apart from muscle tightness until I tried to taper off of the diazepam. I am trying to eat as you describe but the terrible hunger and cravings are hard to fight all day every day. I ate Paleo prior to withdrawal. Opioids also have antitussive and antidiarrheal effects; therefore, low doses and or weaker forms of these medications will sometimes be used for those purposes as well.
These medications do have a potential for abuse due to their addictive nature. Most of these medications are considered controlled substances and their federal schedules are listed beside them. FEN ta nil ] CII - transdermal patch, injectable solution, sublingual tablet, buccal tablet, buccal film, sublingual solution, lollipop, troche Vicodin, Lorcet generic name: MOR feen ] CII - tablet, extended-release capsule, controlled-release tablet, oral solution, injectable solution, suppository OxyContin, Roxicodone generic name: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are a class of drugs that provide analgesic and antipyretic effects, and, in higher doses, anti-inflammatory effects.
NSAIDs are usually indicated for the treatment of acute or chronic conditions where pain and inflammation are present, such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, gout, dysmenorrhoea, headache and migraine, postoperative inflammation, muscle stiffness, and fever.
Some medications do not easily fit into other categories, such as acetaminophen, aspirin and some of the combination analgesics that contain weak barbiturates. Acetaminophen, sometimes listed as APAP, is a potent analgesic and antipyretic activity with weak anti-inflammatory activity.
While aspirin could technically be classified as a NSAID, it is more often classified as a salicylate. One thing that surprises many about the combination of butalbital, acetaminophen, and caffeine is that it is not federally scheduled even though the combination of butalbital, aspirin, and caffeine is considered a controlled substance.
Joseph Adult Chewable Aspirin generic name: AS pir in ] ASA - tablet, delayed-release tablet, effervescent tablet, chewable tablet, suppository Fioricet generic name: Serotonin 5-HT receptor agonists cause vasoconstriction in cranial arteries to relieve migraines and cluster headaches. The word cardiac is derived from the Greek word kardia which simply means heart. The cardiac system is the entire system supporting the heart including the cardiac muscle, its conduction system, and the nerve supply along with the rest of the circulatory system such as arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins.
Many other organs also interact very directly with the cardiac system such as the lungs and kidneys. The medications affecting the cardiac system work by either exciting or inhibiting various functions either in this system or through other organs that interact with the cardiac system.
Besides the medication categories listed in this section cardiac glycosides, diuretics, antiarrhythmics, angiotensin-II receptor antagonists, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, nitrates, renin-inhibitors, anticoagulants, antiplatelet medications, and various antihyperlipidemic drugs some of the categories previously discussed have significant effects on the cardiac system particularly the various medications that affected the sympathetic nervous system.
Cardiac glycosides are drugs used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmia. Any medications in this category work by increasing the forcing of contraction of the heart, providing an overall increase in cardiac output. A diuretic elevates the rate of urination which removes fluid from the body and has a net result of decreased blood pressure.
There are various mechanisms of action for these diuretics. Loop diuretics, such as bumetanide and furosemide, inhibit the reabsorption of sodium and chloride ions in the ascending loop of Henle within the kidneys' nephrons. By decreasing this reabsorption, an increased amount of fluid is excreted. Thiazide diuretics, such as chlorothiazide and hydrochlorothiazide often abbreviated HCTZ , inhibit sodium reabsorption in distal renal tubules resulting in increased excretion of sodium and water.
Loop diuretics and thiazide diuretics also cause patients to lose a lot of potassium. Potassium sparing diuretics, such as spironolactone and triamterene, have an effect on renal distal tubules to inhibit sodium reabsorption causing the excretion of sodium and water but allows for the retention of potassium. Antiarrhythmic agents are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used to suppress abnormal rhythms of the heart cardiac arrhythmias , such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation.
A mi OH da rone ] - tablet, injectable solution Multaq generic name: Their main uses are in the treatment of hypertension high blood pressure , diabetic nephropathy kidney damage due to diabetes , and congestive heart failure. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors ACE inhibitors causes dilation of blood vessels which results in lower blood pressure.
In treating heart disease, ACE inhibitors are usually used with other medications. A typical treatment plan will often include an ACE inhibitor, beta blocker, a long acting nitrate, and a calcium channel blocker in combinations that are adjusted to the individual patient's needs. KAP toe pril ] - tablet Vasotec generic name: KWIN a pril ] - tablet Altace generic name: RAM i pril ] - capsule.
These drugs are used to treat hypertension. Calcium channel blockers work by inhibiting the influx of calcium ions into myocardial and vascular tissues thereby preventing contractions and causing the dilation of the main coronary and systemic arteries.
Patients should avoid grapefruit and its constituents while taking calcium channel blockers. Grapefruit inhibits an isoenzyme called CYP3A4 that helps breakdown calcium channel blockers.
Inhibiting this enzyme causes patients to effectively be overdosed by their calcium channel blockers. Interactions related to grapefruit are often referred to as grapefruit juice drug interactions GJDI. Nitrates relax smooth muscle via dose-dependent dilation of arterial and venous beds to reduce both preload and afterload, and myocardial oxygen demand. Nitrates also improve coronary collateral circulation, lowers blood pressure, and increases heart rate. Nitrates are used for both the relief and prevention of angina pectoris, treatment of perioperative hypertension, control of congestive heart failure during a myocardial infarction, and you will see these used off label for the treatment of anal fissures.
Typically, patients need a nitrate free interval to minimize tolerance. This nitrate free interval is often provided at night. Nitroglycerin also has special storage requirements due to its relative reactivity with certain plastics. As a result, the sublingual tablets should be stored in glass; typically, this means that patients should keep them in their original container from the manufacturer.
Also, the nitroglycerin intravenous solution is infused with special tubing to prevent the drug from leaching into the plastic of most infusion sets.
NYE troe GLIS er in ] NTG - sublingual tablet, extended-release capsule, translingual solution, transdermal patch, intravenous solution, transdermal ointment, rectal ointment.
A renin inhibitor prevents the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. The decrease in angiotensin I causes a decrease in angiotensin II, a potent blood pressure elevating peptide. This makes renin inhibitors effective in the treatment of hypertension. Many antihypertensive medications are provided in combinations in order to combine effects and improve patient compliance by decreasing the number of medications the patient may need to take.
As all the medications listed below have already been discussed in this chapter, you may refer to the previous information concerning each active ingredient within the combination medications listed below. Tekturna HCT generic name: A broad range of chemicals with various mechanisms of action fall into this category.
Anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs are used for the following treatments: Medication interactions are a common concern with these drugs as many pain relievers most NSAIDs and aspirin may slow a patient's clotting time. These pain relievers should not be taken in combination with the various anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs without first consulting a physician. Warfarin also provides a significant food-drug interaction.
Warfarin prevents coagulation by binding vitamin K; therefore foods rich in vitamin K such as dark leafy greens, broccoli, and asparagus should be avoided as they will interfere with warfarin. AS pi rin and dye peer ID a mole ] - extended-release capsule Plavix generic name: WAR far in ] - - tablet, powder for injection. This is significant because most circulating cholesterol comes from internal manufacture rather than the diet.
When the liver can no longer produce cholesterol, total levels of cholesterol in the blood will fall, particularly LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. They also increase "good cholesterol" -- HDL cholesterol. Cholesterol synthesis appears to occur mostly at night, so statins with short half-lives are usually taken at night to maximize their effect. The most common adverse side effects are raised liver enzymes and muscle problems most frequently muscle cramps.
Inhibiting this enzyme causes patients to effectively be overdosed by their HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Interactions related to grapefruit are often refereed to as grapefruit juice drug interactions GJDI.
LOE va sta tin ] - tablet, extended-release tablet Pravachol generic name: SIM va sta tin ] - tablet. There are a number of other medications used to reduce cholesterol with various mechanisms of action. SIM va stat in and ez ET i mibe ] - tablet. An allergy is a hypersensitivity to a substance an allergen that is normally harmless. Allergy sufferers may endure a wide variety of symptoms such as inflammation of the nasal passages and the conjunctiva a membrane covering the white part of the eye , skin conditions such as hives and eczema, and asthma attacks.
Some allergic conditions can be more serious and even involve anaphylaxis! Exposure to allergens that an individual has become sensitive causes their bodies to release histamines. Patients that desire symptomatic relief may use antihistamines and decongestants. First generation antihistamines diphenhydramine and hydroxyzine can cross the blood brain barrier. As a result, diphenhydramine may be used to treat insomnia, and hydroxyzine may be used to treat nausea and vomiting.
DES lor A ta deen ] - tablet, disintegrating tablet, syrup Benadryl generic name: DYE fen HYE dra meen ] - tablet, chewable tablet, disintegrating tablet, capsule, oral solution, cream, gel, ointment, lotion, topical aerosol spray, oral strip, injectable solution Allegra generic name: OH loe PAT a deen ] - ophthalmic drops, nasal spray.
Patients with either colds or congestion related to their allergies may desire an antihistamine in combination with a decongestant. Since pseudoephedrine is the most commonly included decongestant, many of the medications need to be kept behind the counter in order to limit their availability. This is a result of the Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act , an act intended to decrease the number of clandestine methamphetamine labs in the United States.
Zyrtec D generic name: Some patients may have respiratory conditions such as asthma or bronchitis. Patients may receive glucocorticosteroids, bronchodialators, leukotriene receptor antagonists, or even epinephrine to treat or prevent acute episodes. Glucocorticosteroids and epinephrine have already been discussed in this article; therefore, this section will focus on bronchodialators and leukotriene receptor antagonists. A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs.
The bronchodialators on this list can be further broken down into beta-2 agonists albuterol, levalbuterol, and salmeterol and anticholinergics ipratropium and tiotropium. Fluticasone, which may be used on it own or in combination with other drugs, is classified as a glucocorticosteroid. IP ra TRO pee um ] - inhalation aerosol, solution for nebulization, nasal spray Xopenex generic name: Leukotriene receptor antagonists have been shown to improve asthma symptoms, reduce asthma exacerbations, and limit markers of inflammation.
These medications are also used for allergies. The gastrointestinal system stretches from mouth to anus and includes the esophagus, stomach, and intestines. The long portion of the body can have a plethora of ailments from heart burn and reflux, to stomach and duodenal ulcers, to emesis and diarrhea.
This section endeavors to look at some of the more common medications utilized to cover these conditions. H 2 -receptor antagonists are used to block the action of histamine on parietal cells in the stomach, decreasing the production of acid by these cells. H2-antagonists are used for peptic ulcer disease PUD , gastroesophageal reflux disease GERD , dyspepsia, and the prevention of stress ulcers. Proton-pump inhibitors PPIs produce a pronounced and long-lasting reduction of gastric acid production.
These drugs are used to treat dyspepsia, duodenal ulcers, peptic ulcer disease PUD , gastroesophageal reflux disease GERD , laryngopharyngeal reflux, Barrett's esophagus, stress gastritis prevention, gastrinomas and other conditions that cause hypersecretion of acid, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. PPIs are also used, in combination with antibiotics, to treat helicobacter pylori.
Antiemetics are used to treat nausea and vomiting associated with a number of things including motion sickness, the side effects of opioid analgesics and general anesthetics, and chemotherapy directed against cancer. Antiemetics are also used for morning sickness; however there is little information about the effect on the fetus, and therefore are typically reserved for times considered strictly necessary. MEK li zeen ] - tablet, chewable tablet Reglan generic name: Stool softeners and laxatives are taken to loosen stool and treat constipation.
SIL ee um ] - powder for oral solution Senokot generic name: SEN nah ] - tablet, chewable tablet, syrup. The thyroid gland secretes three hormones: Triiodothyronine and thyroxine help regulate tissue growth and mitochondrial metabolism in most of the cells in the human body. Thyrocalcitonin primarily affects bone formation. Thyroid replacement therapies are primarily used to treat hypothyroidism. These therapies use medications that replace T3 liothyronine , T4 levothyroxine , or both T3 and T4 thyroid.
Synthroid, Levoxyl, Levothroid generic name: THYE roid ] - tablet. Osteoporosis and Paget's Disease are diseases in which bones have decreased mass and are more fragile.
While calcium and vitamin D both discussed further when talking about dietary supplements in a later section are important to developing and maintaining strong bones, other medications are used to specifically combat these diseases, such as calcitonin used to supplement thyrocalcitonin , bisphosphonate derivatives such as alendronate, ibandronate, risedronate, and zoledronic acid , and parathyroid hormone analog teriparatide. Patients should be instructed to remain upright for 60 minutes after taking a bisphosphonate derivative to prevent stomach upset, and inflammation and erosion of the esophagus.
Type 1 diabetes, also known as insulin dependent diabetes mellitus IDDM or juvenile diabetes, typically appears during childhood or adolescence. Individuals with type 1 diabetes require insulin therapy as their bodies do not produce insulin. Type 2 diabetes, also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus NIDDM , usually occurs in adults.
Individuals with type 2 diabetes either don't produce enough insulin or their cells have become insulin resistant. These patients will usually receive non-insulin therapies, although they may receive insulin therapy, or even a combination of insulin and non-insulin therapies. A combination of rapid-acting insulin aspart, insulin glulisine, insulin lispro or short-acting insulin regular given in combination with either an intermediate-acting insulin NPH or long-acting insulin detemir, insulin glargine insulin are typically used.
IN soo lin DE te mir ] - vial for injection, prefilled pen Lantus generic name: IN soo lin REG yoo ler hoo man ] - vial for injection, prefilled pen, concentrated vial for injection. Metformin decreases hepatic glucose production, decreases GI glucose absorption, and increases target cell insulin sensitivity.
Glucophage, Glucophage XR generic name: Sulfonylureas initially increase insulin secretion, increase insulin receptor sensitivity, and may decrease liver production of glucose. Some patients have an increased risk of hypoglycemia from sulfonylureas.
These medications have a cross-sensitivity with sulfa allergies. GLYE bue ride ] - tablet, micronized tablet. Thiazolidinediones improve cellular response to insulin and decreases the liver's production of glucose.
Thiazolidinediones, particularly products containing rosiglitazone, may cause or exacerbate congestive heart failure in some patients. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 DPP-4 degrade incretin hormones.
DPP-4 inhibitors increase and prolong incretin hormone activity. Incretins increase insulin release and synthesis. SI ta glip tin ] - tablet. Often, type 2 diabetics will require multiple medications. Combination products provide convenience and improved patient compliance. SI ta glip tin and met FOR min ] - tablet. Antineoplastics and monoclonal antibodies are types of chemotherapy.
Chemotherapy is the use of medications to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy is used for diffuse tumors and is used after surgery and irradiation of solid tumors in the attempt to eliminate remaining cancer cells that have metastasized. Antineoplastic agents are primarily concerned with inhibiting uncontrolled new cell growth cancer. The following is a table intended to give a succinct list of which antineoplastic agents can be used to treat various cancers.
This list is not considered complete, but focuses on the antineoplastic agents discussed in this article. Sometimes these antineoplastic agents are used for diseases other than cancer. Bleomycin can be used for pleural sclerosing. Cyclophosphamide can be used for nephrotic syndrome, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, lupus nephritis, and systemic sclerosis. Methotrexate can be used psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis.
Unfortunately, antineoplastic agents can not differentiate between cancer cells and healthy cells which is responsible for many of the common side effects from these treatments as there is rapid cell growth in bone marrow, the GI tract, hair follicles, and skin cells.
This often results in anemias, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hair loss, photosensitivity, and thinner skin. Many of these medications also have their own unique adverse effects. These medications are considered phase non-selective for when they work; therefore, they work during all phases, except for the G 0 phase.
Besides the broad grouping of side effects common to antineoplastic agents, these drugs have the following side effects as well: Besides the broad grouping of side effects common to antineoplastic agents, they can cause stomatitis and have cardiotoxicities.
These drugs are also considered vesicants. These medications have pulmonary toxicities. Mitomycin is also considered a vesicant. All of these medications may cause stomatitis. Gemcitabine may also cause a flu-like syndrome. Methotrexate can cause renal dysfunction. Additional side effects with these medications include peripheral neuropathy and hypersensitivity reactions.
VePesid, vp 16 generic name: Tumors that involve the reproductive organs breast, ovaries, uterus, prostate and testes are often hormone-dependent.
The hormones that are often responsible for developing and maintaining these organs are now functioning as growth factors for these cancerous cells. Hormone antagonists can be useful in the treatment of these cancers. Hormone antagonists tend to work best during the G 1 phase by pushing these cancer cells into the G 0 phase. LET roe zol ] - tablet. LOO proe lide ] - solution for injection, prefilled syringe.
Monoclonal antibodies, often referred to as targeted therapy, only works against specific cells. To take that a step further, they only react with specific epitopes or antigens. This can reduce or even eliminate many of the side effects, but the medications tend to be very limited as to which cancers and autoimmune diseases they can treat. This is a result of monoclonal antibodies being monospecific antibodies that are all identical, because they are made by immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.
This specificity can also be problematic if the antigen becomes minimally changed. Monoclonal antibodies are also used to treat age related macular degeneration bevacizumab , Wegener granulomatosis rituximab , idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis infliximab , respiratory syncytial virus palivizumab , sarcoidosis infliximab , rheumatoid arthritis adalimumab, infliximab, rituximab , psoriatic arthritis adalimumab, infliximab , ankylosing spondylitis adalimumab, infliximab , Crohn's disease adalimumab, infliximab , ulcerative colitis adalimumab, infliximab , plaque psoriasis adalimumab, infliximab , microscopic polyangiitis rituximab , and immune thrombocytopenic purpura rituximab.
There is a wide array of medications with just a few medications in each category. This section provides information on various common medications that could not be grouped into previous sections. These medications affect the hemopoietic stem cells in bone marrow causing an increase in either red blood cells darbepoetin, epoetin , white blood cells filgrastim , or platelets oprelvekin. Dialysis, chemotherapy, and various other causes of anemia make this class of medications extremely useful.
Gouty arthritis is painful inflammation often of the big toe and foot resulting from elevated levels of uric acid in the blood and the deposition of urate crystals around the joints. This disease has a greater occurrence in men. The condition can become chronic and result in deformity. Allopurinol, azathioprine, and colchicine can all be used to treat gouty arthritis. Allopurinol is also used to treat antineoplastic induced hyperuricemia.
Azathioprine can also be used for prevention of kidney transplant rejection, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus nephritis, Behcet's syndrome, Crohn's disease, myasthenia gravis, and multiple sclerosis. Colchicine can also be used for familial Mediterranean fever, and Behcet's syndrome. KOL chi seen ] - tablet. Etanercept binds and inactivates tumor necrosis factors TNF , thereby preventing synovial inflammation.
A phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor PDE-5 inhibitor is a drug used to block the degradative action of phosphodiesterase type 5 on cyclic GMP in the smooth muscle cells lining the blood vessels supplying the corpus cavernosum of the penis.
These drugs are used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction, and were the first effective oral treatment available for the condition. Because PDE-5 is also present in the arterial wall smooth muscle within the lungs, PDE-5 inhibitors have also been used in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, a disease in which blood vessels in the lungs become overloaded with fluid, usually as a result of failure of the left ventricle of the heart.
Viagra, Revatio generic name: A cough medicine is a medication used in an attempt to treat coughing and related conditions. For dry coughs, treatment with cough suppressants, antitussives benzonatate, codeine, dextromethorphan , may be attempted to suppress the body's urge to cough.
However, in productive coughs coughs that produce phlegm , treatment is instead attempted with expectorants guaifenesin to loosen mucus from the respiratory tract. Tessalon, Tessalon Perles generic name: Latanoprost is a prostaglandin F2-alpha analog, which causes an increase in the outflow of aqueous humor. This reduces intraocular pressure. Estrogen by itself including conjugated estrogens and estradiol are used for menopausal vasomotor symptoms, atrophic vaginitis, Kraurosis vulvae, female hypogonadism, osteoporosis prevention, prostate cancer, abnormal uterine bleeding, female castration, primary ovarian failure, and breast cancer.
Progesterone only drugs levonorgestrel, medroxyprogesterone, and norethindrone acetate are used for amenorrhea, contraception, endometriosis, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, and paraphilia. Many of these combinations are also used for acne. Medications, biological agents, and injectables are heavily regulated by the Food and Drug Administration FDA , whereas dietary supplements intended for oral consumption are only regulated as food by the FDA.
To learn more about how dietary supplements are regulated, you may want to review pertinent information from the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act. Dietary supplements often make health related structure function claims. A micronutrient is a substance needed only in small amounts for normal body function vitamins and minerals ; as opposed to macronutrients fats, proteins, and carbohydrates which are required in much larger quantities.
Vitamins can be defined as any organic compounds that are essential, in small quantities, for the normal functioning of metabolism in the body. They cannot usually be synthesized in the body but they occur naturally in certain foods. Insufficient supply of any particular vitamin results in a deficiency disease, hence the common need for vitamin supplements. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat soluble and therefore can be stored in adipose tissue. All other vitamins are considered water soluble.
MUL tee VYE ta min in fu zhun ] - injectable solution - Multivitamin infusions are commonly used for parenteral nutrition or for treatment of a nutritional deficiency.
PreNexa, Nexa, NesTabs generic name: Retinol A, Aquasol A generic name: Vitamin A deficiency causes night blindness, dry eyes, susceptibility to infections, and follicular hyperkeratosis. Niacor, Niaspan generic name: Vitamin B9 is necessary for red blood cell formation and prevents neural tube defects.
Vitamin C deficiency can cause scurvy. Drisdol, Calciferol generic name: Vitamin D deficiency leads to rickets in kids, osteomalacia in adults, and low calcium levels.
Aquasol E generic name: VYE ta min E to kof er ol ] - tablet, capsule, oral solution - Vitamin E functions as a lipid antioxidant, protects membrane phospholipids, intracellular antioxidant, and inhibits platelet aggregation. Vitamin E has been used to treat skin conditions, leg cramps, sexual dysfunction, heart disease, aging, PMS, and to increase athletic performance.
Mephyton, AquaMephyton generic name: VYE ta min K1 fye toe na DYE own ] - tablet, injection emulsion - Vitamin K1 is an essential lipid-soluble vitamin that plays a vital role in the production of coagulation proteins.
Vitamin K1 can be used as an antidote for warfarin. Electrolytes when dissolved in solution break apart into ions anions and cations. The movement of these ions across cell membranes are intended to create an electrolyte balance between both the extracellular and intracellular environments. In particular, the maintenance of precise osmotic gradients of electrolytes is important. Such gradients affect and regulate the hydration of the body as well as blood pH, and are critical for nerve and muscle function.
OS-Cal, Tums, PhosLo, Citracal calcium with various salts - tablet, effervescent tablet, chewable tablet, injectable solution, injectable suspension - Calcium is used to prevent osteoporosis and kidney stones and to treat hypocalcemia, hyperkalemia, hypermagnesemia, calcium channel blocker overdose, and it can be used as an antacid.
Slow Fe, Feosol, Ferrlecit, INFeD iron, ferrous with various salts - tablet, extended-release tablet, oral solution, oral liquid drops, oral suspension drops, injectable solution - Iron is necessary for red blood cell formation. Iron is used to treat iron defcient anemia. Mag-Ox , Uro-Mag, Magonate magnesium with various salts - tablet, capsule, powder for oral solution, oral solution, injectable solution, infusion solution - Magnesium is one of the major intracellular cations.
For normal neuromuscular activity, humans need normal concentration of extracellular calcium and magnesium. Intracellular magnesium is an important cofactor for various enzymes, transporters, and nucleic acids that are essential for normal cellular function, replication, and energy metabolism.
Klor-Con, KDur, Slow K, K Phos potassium with various salts - tablet, extended-release tablet, extended-release capsule, effervescent tablet, injectable solution, premix infusion - Potassium is used to treat or prevent hypokalemia.
Zinc facilitates wound healing, helps maintain normal growth rates, normal skin hydration, and the senses of taste and smell. Zinc is also used to topically treat diaper rash and various topical irritations.
Some oral types are used to ameliorate cold symptoms. Herbal supplements are often used for an array of purposes. A common challenge to the use of herbal supplements is the lack of scientific studies for their use; however, there is a plethora of anecdotal evidence although, sometimes the anecdotal evidence can be conflicting.
The following is a brief list of the most commonly used herbal supplements, along with what they are used for. Acknowledgement of their use for the proceeding purposes does not mean that their is sufficient scientific evidence to assure that these supplements will achieve the desired effects. John's wort - St. John's wort is used to treat depression mild-moderate , psychosomatic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, premenstrual syndrome, burning mouth syndrome, and neuropathy.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins.
The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as foreign, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later encounters. Vaccines do not guarantee complete protection from a disease. The efficacy or performance of the vaccine is dependent on a number of factors, including the disease itself for some diseases, vaccination performs better than for other diseases ; the strain of vaccine some vaccinations are for different strains of the disease ; whether one kept to the timetable for the vaccinations; individuals who are "non-responders" they do not generate antibodies even after being vaccinated correctly ; or other factors such as ethnicity, age, or genetic predisposition.
When a vaccinated individual does develop the disease vaccinated against, the disease is likely to be milder than without vaccination. A common allergy concern for both the influenza virus vaccine and for various measles vaccinations is that they are produced in chicken embryos and therefore they may contain some egg proteins.
If a patient has an egg allergy, it may be advisable to avoid the influenza vaccine and should use caution with various vaccines for measles. Decavac, Tenivac, Td, DT generic name: This article will cover the following knowledge areas: Generic and brand names of pharmaceuticals Therapeutic equivalence Drug interactions e.
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