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Once they enter the respective lung, each primary bronchus splits into several smaller secondary bronchi which then split into many even smaller tertiary bronchi. Phone number is required. The vocal cords' functions are modulating pitch and voice production and to act as another barrier in preventing aspiration of larger objects. This is an article about the structure of the lateral wall of the nasal cavity, full of diagrams showing the bones and cartilages. Through this pulmonary circulation, the lungs enact their function of removing waste from the blood and supplying the body with oxygen. Special senses such as taste and smell are important in identifying the presence of potentially harmful air. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page.
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Together, the nasal conchae and meatus function to increase the surface area of the nasal cavity. This optimizes its ability to control the temperature and humidity of inhaled air and provides more opportunity to catch particles and pathogens.
The conchae also cause turbulence of inhaled air which enhances smell detection. Another important structure in the nasal cavity is the cribriform plate which we can see here highlighted in green. It's part of the ethmoid bone of the skull and forms the superior aspect of the nasal cavity. What makes it unique is that it's pierced by lots of tiny holes through which branches of the olfactory nerve protrude. The olfactory nerve is responsible for the sense of smell so it means to have nerve endings in the nasal cavity thus the cribriform plate facilitates the sense of smell.
Smell is important in respiration as it allows the detection of potentially toxic or risky environments. Moving backwards in the head we come to the Eustachian tubes which are air-filled canals that connect the middle ear to the nasopharynx.
This tiny hole here is where the Eustachian tube communicates with the nasopharynx. There's one tube on either side of the head each connecting with an ear. We can see this clearer in the next diagram where this tube — the Eustachian tube — connects the middle ear and the nasopharynx.
The Eustachian tubes have two functions. They're responsible for pressure equalization of the eardrum to prevent strain on the eardrum with environmental changes and they drain the middle ear of mucus secretions and debris to minimize infection risk. Looking into the mouth, a few accessory structures can be seen. The first one which we're looking at now is the tongue.
The tongue is a group of muscles in the mouth which can be controlled unconsciously and consciously. Because it is a group of muscles, the tongue is highly controllable and has many functions. The tongue's functions in respiration are to humidify and heat or cool inhaled air to body temperature and to detect the temperature of anything in the mouth for example food to allow you to react and avoid damage to the throat. It's also responsible for swallowing where it guides food away from the trachea, and for taste to detect potentially toxic environments.
Finally, it also facilitates speech. Moving up to the top of the mouth, we have the hard and soft palates which form the roof of the mouth. This can be seen in this anterior view of the open mouth. First, we have the hard palate and posterior to the hard palate, we have the soft palate.
They separate the nasal cavity and nasopharynx from the oral cavity and oropharynx. The hard palate is made up of bones of the skull whereas the soft palate is a group of muscles that are coordinated with the tongue.
Collectively, the palates have three functions — closing the nasal airway during swallowing and vomiting, providing sensation for the gag reflex and in modifying speech. Attached to the edge of the soft palate is this structure here which is called the uvula. This is a small dangling grape-like structure which moves when you say ahhh. It provides sensation for the gag reflex and aids with speech. Sometimes confused with the uvula are the tonsils. There are three sets of paired tonsils — two pharyngeal tonsils on the back wall of the nasopharynx — two palatine tonsils one each side of the soft palate, and two lingual tonsils found at the base of the tongue.
The palatine tonsils often called the adenoids when infected are the tonsils removed in a tonsillectomy. We can see the right and left palatine tonsils in this anterior view of the open mouth. As a collective unit, the three sets of tonsils' job is to trap and identify particles and pathogens entering the body. They form an almost complete ring around the throat called Waldeyer's ring. This allows the tonsils to catch everything going into the body.
Going down into the neck, we have the epiglottis. This is a flap of connective tissue attached to the entrance of the larynx. When swallowing, the epiglottis closes over the larynx to prevent swallowed substances from entering the lower respiratory tract. Below the epiglottis, we can see this structure here which is called the larynx. The larynx is a collection of cartilage structures and it houses and protects the vocal cords.
Adam's apple is a useful surface marker of the front of the larynx. The vocal cords' functions are modulating pitch and voice production and to act as another barrier in preventing aspiration of larger objects. Before we conclude this tutorial, let's go over some clinical notes relating to the respiratory system. Respiratory diseases can be separated into two categories. Obstructive diseases affect the airways you can see highlighted and examples include asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease also known as COPD.
Restrictive diseases on the other hand cause problems with lung expansion. Examples of which would be pulmonary fibrosis and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. So obstructive diseases involve narrowing or blocking of airways. In asthma, there's a reversible antibody-mediated hypersensitivity reaction in the airways in response to a trigger, for example, cold air or pollen.
This causes mucus secretion and constriction of the muscles around the smaller bronchi and bronchioles which together obstruct the airflow. It improves rapidly with bronchodilator therapy and this is what's meant by the term reversible and is a crucial part of an asthma diagnosis. In COPD, persistent inflammation of all the airways results in narrowing due to swelling, increased mucus section and reduced lung elasticity. As we mentioned when talking about the muscles of respiration, the lung's elasticity is the main way air is expelled.
So if the elasticity is decreased, it's more difficult to expel air and it remains trapped in the lungs. This takes up space and prevents nice new oxygenated air from coming in and reduces the ability of the lungs to transfer oxygen to the blood.
Unlike asthma, it's only minimally reversible, if at all, with bronchodilator therapy. Restrictive defects are down to the lungs not being able to expand as much as normal.
In other cases, medical treatments such as radiotherapy are the precipitating factor. The scarring results in less compliance of the lungs causing an inability to expand and allow as much air in. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome occurs in obese individuals where the weight of fat on the chest wall is greater than the respiratory muscles can cope with.
This means the thorax cannot expand properly restricting airflow into the lungs. It's worse when lying down and on exertion; however, it's important to emphasize that exercise is one of, of note, the best treatment of this condition. So now we know the path of air in and out of the body.
To summarize, first we covered the upper respiratory tract which consists of the nasal cavity which is located behind the nose, the oral cavity which contains accessory structures such as the tongue and uvula, and then we had the three components of the pharynx. We had the nasopharynx which we can see here then the oropharynx which we can see here and finally we had the laryngopharynx which we can see here. Then we dived into the lower respiratory tract which is made up of the trachea which bifurcates into the two principle bronchi.
The principle bronchi further divide into the secondary and tertiary bronchi until they give off the bronchioles which are continuous with the alveoli. We also mentioned the lungs as a respiratory unit that contains the secondary and tertiary bronchi, the bronchioles and the alveoli. We also talked about the main muscles of respiration namely the diaphragm which we can see here and the external intercostal muscles which we can see here.
Once we'd gone over the main muscles of respiration, we looked at the accessory muscles of respiration including the sternocleidomastoid muscle; the posterior scalene, middle scalene and anterior scalene muscles; the anterior chest wall muscles such as the pectoralis major muscles, the posterior chest wall muscles for example the latissimus dorsi and trapezius muscles, as well as the spinal muscles like the iliocostalis muscle. We also looked at the internal intercostal muscles which are found between the ribs and, finally, the abdominal wall muscles.
Lastly, we looked at the accessory structures of the respiratory tract which are the nasal conchae and nasal meatus. Here we can see the superior, middle and inferior nasal meatus highlighted in green.
Then we had the cribriform plate which is located at the roof of the nasal cavity followed by the Eustachian tubes which are represented by this tiny hole here. Then we had the tongue which is located at the floor of the mouth and the hard and soft palates which form the roof of the mouth. Next, we had the uvula which is continuous with the soft palate and the tonsils of which there are three types. In this image, we can see the palatine tonsils. Next, we had the epiglottis which prevents food from entering the lower respiratory tract and finally we had the larynx — this structure here which houses the vocal cords.
Your lungs pull in oxygen through your nose, mouth, and throat. Then, in the lungs, the oxygen is transfered to the blood vessels and the lungs draw waste, carbon dioxide, out of the veins. You can then exhale all of the waste! Learn more about yo Detailed images are set to music and information is printed under each photo. A short, self-checking quiz is also provided with this link.
Found by begamatt in Respiratory System. This is a concise and easy-to-understand three-minute video that explains in steps how oxygen is transported.
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Trachea and Bronchi For example, temperature, carbon dioxide, pH and metabolism all influence the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. While carbon dioxide is a metabolic waste product, it plays some important physiological roles as well. This lesson describes how carbon dioxide is transported in our blood, how carbon dioxide is converted into a pH buffer, and how carbon dioxide helps with oxygen transport.
Did you know that our nervous system controls our breathing? This lesson describes the basic elements of the homeostatic system responsible for balancing oxygen supply with metabolic demand. Pulmonary function tests are used to measure air movement into and out of the lungs. Spirometry is the most common way to measure airflow.
This lesson will describe the use of spirometry to measure lung volumes and flow rates as well as how breathing disorders are diagnosed. Did you know… We have over college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1, colleges and universities.
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Explore over 4, video courses. Find a degree that fits your goals. Try it risk-free for 30 days. About This Chapter Watch anatomy and physiology video lessons with brief quizzes for immediate feedback.
Learn about the many different aspects of the human respiratory system. Some of the things you'll have learned by the end of this chapter include: The gross anatomy of the lungs The function of ventilation muscles The process of external and internal respiration How oxygen and hemoglobin relate to each other in the body How the lung volume and capacity is tested Video Objective Gross Anatomy of the Airway and Lungs: Test your knowledge with a question chapter practice test.
View all practice tests in this course. Gross Anatomy of the Airway and Lungs: Function of Pleural Cavities and Pleural Membranes Each lung is contained within a pleural cavity, the space between the outside of the lung and inside of the chest wall. The Respiratory Surface and Gas Exchange Efficiency The respiratory membrane includes millions of alveoli with a surface area as large as a tennis court.
Pulmonary Surfactant Function and Ventilation Our lungs are lined with a thin layer of water. Oxygen and Hemoglobin Did you know that almost all of the oxygen transported in our blood is bound to hemoglobin? Cooperative Binding of Oxygen with Hemoglobin Our cells need oxygen. Carbon Dioxide Transport in the Blood While carbon dioxide is a metabolic waste product, it plays some important physiological roles as well.
How Ventilation is Regulated Did you know that our nervous system controls our breathing? What Are Pulmonary Function Tests? Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam. Other Practice Exams in this course. Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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