Ron Hines DVM PhD
This operation is considered among the safest of all surgical procedures. A little like one becoming a little like one's parents as one sees them so much as 'normal' when one is growing up and learn their values. If the packaging looks attractive and if it instills confidence. Inspiration for design of robust organic composites". Exercising first thing in the morning is usually a bad idea as it puts the most stress on the heart and metabolism, which is why most people have heart attacks in the early or mid morning if they are going to have a heart attack. If you do happen to eat too much of a particular food type or too large a quantity during a meal, and your stomach struggles to cope, it may be advisable to treat your stomach gently for the next few days at least, with smaller portions, enough time in between snacks and meals to digest the food, and food types that are easy to digest e.
How Do I Know if I Have Gallstones?
Some alternative treatments have also been found to be effective in alleviating the symptoms of troublesome gallstones. When deciding what course of action to take for symptomatic gallstones, doctors usually choose from among three main treatment options: Watchful waiting, nonsurgical therapy, and surgical removal of the gallbladder. Though a gallstone episode can be extremely painful or frightening, almost a third to half of all people who experience an attack never have a recurrence.
In some cases, the stone dissolves or becomes dislodged and thereby resumes its "silence. Even when the patient has had repeated gallstone episodes, the doctor may postpone treatment or surgery because of other health concerns. If your surgery has been delayed, you should remain under a doctor's care and report any recurrences of gallstone symptoms immediately. If you are unable or unwilling to go through surgery for a gallstone problem that requires treatment, your doctor may recommend one of several noninvasive techniques.
Note that though these methods may destroy symptom-causing gallstones, they can do nothing to prevent others from forming, and recurrence is common. Some gallstones can be dissolved through the use of a bile salt, although the procedure can be used only with stones formed from cholesterol and not from bile pigments. The drug Actigall ursodiol is taken as a tablet; depending on its size, the gallstone may take months or even years to go away. Because some stones are calcified, this treatment often doesn't work.
Another nonsurgical technique, shock wave therapy, uses high-frequency sound waves to fragment the stones. Bile salt is administered afterward to dissolve small pieces. This therapy is rarely used. Doctors can also attempt to remove gallstones during an ERCP. During the procedure an instrument is inserted through the endoscope to attempt removal of the stone.
All life stages of both sexes are parasitic—unlike the non- parasitic male Anchorworm Lernaea , Argulus adults can survive for several days off the fish host. After she releases her eggs, the female returns to the fish host. The time required for Argulus eggs to hatch will vary, depending upon the species and temperature. If laid in the fall, eggs are capable of over wintering surviving until the following spring. Disease in Fish Caused by Argulus: Argulus infestations tend to peak in the summer and fall.
The lice can be found attached to the skin, gill chamber, and mouth. Localized inflammation occurs at the contact site because of mechanical damage from hooks and spines on the stylet and appendages, and irritation from digestive enzymes.
In heavy infestations, the fish lice may be seen all over the skin and fins of the fish and in the water column Figures 3 and 4. Fish without visible lice may show non- specific signs of infestation.
These include spot or pinpoint hemorrhages, anemia, fin and scale loss, increased mucus production, lethargy, erratic swimming, reduced feeding, hanging at the surface avoiding swimming into the water column and poor body condition.
In some cases, there may be no obvious signs of disease other than presence of the parasite. Individual adult and late stage juvenile Argulus are easily seen with the unaided eye. Note readily visible oval parasites in throat ventral area of head, as well as others scattered throughout the body.
Although fish may tolerate low and even moderate levels of Argulus with very few signs of disease, localized inflammation and damage at the affected site may lead to secondary infections. Secondary pathogens, such as the bacteria Aeromonas and the water mold Saprolegnia , are often seen concurrently with Argulus infestations. Argulus is also capable of acting as a mechanical vector or intermediate host for several fish diseases. The parasite can carry and transmit spring viremia of carp, a reportable viral disease of Koi, common carp, and goldfish, among other hosts.
Aeromonas salmonicida , an important bacterial pathogen, has been isolated from Argulus coregoni, and experiments demonstrated higher rates of Aeromonas infection when Argulus are present, but direct transmission from louse to fish has not yet been proven.
Argulus can also serve as the intermediate host for several species of nematodes roundworms. Because of their size, older stages of Argulus can be diagnosed with the naked eye. The parasites are visible moving on the host or swimming in the water. The parasite can also be identified on a wet mount of the affected tissue.
Captured fish should be examined quickly because Argulus may rapidly leave the fish once it is disturbed or removed from the water. Filtering water from the system through a fine mesh net may also help capture free- swimming Argulus adults or juveniles for identification.
Others get misdiagnosed as having a giardia infection. With good care, the vast majority of cats survive the attack that first brings them to the veterinary hospital. If your veterinarian can induce your cat to eat, it should do well and return home. Cats hate veterinary hospitals. If you yourself can spend time at the hospital, petting, reassuring and talking to your pet, your cat is more likely to heal.
That and loving, individualized, nursing care are the keys to success. Once your cat has been stabilized and sent back home, it will most likely need a special diet and occasional medications throughout its life. With that special care, it should live a very long time. Your veterinarian will want to perform a physical examination of your cat.
There are no specific physical signs that announce pancreatitis. Your cat might indicate to your veterinarian that its abdomen is tender and sometimes, a firm, inflamed pancreas can actually be felt. Occasionally neurological signs accompany pancreatitis. If it fails to snap back promptly, your vet will know your pet is dehydrated. Your vet may notice that your pet has lost weight since its last visit. Standard blood panels and urine examination will not be very helpful in getting your veterinarian to a diagnosis.
They are the logical starting off point with any sick cat, but the results are never diagnostic. Cats with pancreatitis sometimes have an elevated white blood cell count. Electrolyte sodium, potassium, chloride changes are common because so many cats with pancreatitis are dehydrated. Liver enzymes ALP etc. High, low or normal blood lipase or amylase are not significant in cats with pancreatitis. About a quarter of cats with pancreatitis are anemic. You can go to this page to see normal blood values for your cat.
There are two blood tests that are very helpful in diagnosing pancreatitis in cats. One is the serum trypsin-like immunoreactivity test and the other, the pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity test. The vast majority of trypsin moves directly from your cat's pancreas to the intestine through the pancreatic duct.
When the amount in the blood is too high, the pancreas is leaking more than it should into the blood stream due to inflammation. There is controversy as to the accuracy of this test.
Some feel it is very accurate in identifying cats with pancreatic problems, others less so. This is because other areas of the body, besides the pancreas, produce lipase. But since , a more sensitive radioimmunoassay test that zeros in on only the lipase produced in the pancreas has become available.
Cats with substantial acute pancreatitis and cats with substantial pancreatic scaring insufficiency can usually be identified with this test. The test is not as effective in detecting cats with mild to moderate disease.
The ultrasound machine has become as important to your veterinarian in the 21st Century as the stethoscope was in the 20th.
In the hands of a highly skilled ultrasonographer, ultrasound will detect a bit less than half of the cases of acute pancreatitis in cats depending on the skill of the radiologist. Ultrasound is also quite helpful in detecting the liver and intestinal changes that commonly accompany pancreatitis.
It is also an excellent way to rule out other abdominal conditions in your cat that might be mistaken for pancreatitis. X-rays are not very helpful in diagnosing pancreatitis. Sometimes, the only way to determine what is happening in your cat, is to go in and have a look. Most of the changes that occur in pancreatitis and diseases associated with it occur on the microscopic level. So you veterinarian will obtain as many snippets of tissue biopsies and needle aspirates as possible to have sent off to a pathologist.
Sometimes, the veterinarian can obtain these biopsy samples without surgery by directing a biopsy needle with an ultrasound machine; or using an apparatus called a laparoscope. But a more common way is to actually surgically open your pet under general anesthesia exploratory laparotomy. The treatments your veterinarian will begin depend on the stage at which you present your cat for care. If your cat is experiencing a severe, acute attack, your veterinarian will do everything possible to stabilize its vital systems.
Nothing can be given to your cat orally when it is in an acute crisis. Your vet will give other medications either through the tube in its vein or by intramuscular injection. Acute pancreatitis is a fast-moving condition that requires careful, continuous, monitoring and quick decisions. If your cat is having difficulties breathing, your vet will probably supply it with oxygen. Control Diarrhea and Vomiting.
The majority of cats with pancreatitis do not vomit or have diarrhea. However, if your cat is nauseous, we have medications to control that antiemetics. Antacids are sometimes helpful as well.
If the pet is experiencing diarrhea, there are medications for that as well. Medications that work best are all narcotics. The choice is between injectable narcotic buphrenophine, butorphanol, meperidine, etc.
If the pancreatitis attack is very severe, your cat may go into shock vascular collapse or even develop a life-threatening condition called disseminated intravascular coagulation or DIC.